Number 1–January 2009
Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus
Transmission during an Outbreak
Source of Article: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/1/24.htm
Janneke C.M. Heijne,1 Peter
Gabriella Morroy, Clementine Wijkmans,
Sandy Oostveen, Erwin Duizer,
Mirjam Kretzschmar, and Jacco Wallinga
Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,
Bilthoven, the Netherlands (J.C.M. Heijne, P. Teunis, E. Duizer, M. Kretzchmar, J. Wallinga); Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (P. Teunis); Municipal Health Services "Hart voor Brabant," 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands (G.
Morroy, C. Wijkmans, S. Oostveen); and University Medical Center Utrecht,
Utrecht, the Netherlands (M. Kretzschmar, J. Wallinga)
citation for this article
Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced
hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface
cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick
and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in
limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We
analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an
international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004.
Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive
interval 81.2%–86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was
unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures
are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus.