give honey to babies under 1 year of age
tea comforts sore throats
don't give honey to babies under 1 year of age
National Honey Board
is the season when it's common for throats to get irritated from constant coughing,
and when tea sweetened with honey is an appealing way to soothe sore throats and
has traditionally been considered a healthful ingredient, with an important proviso:
It should not be fed to infants under one year of age. According to the National
Honey Board, this is because ''honey may contain Clostridium botulinum spores
that can cause infant botulism, a rare but serious disease that affects the nervous
system of young babies (under 1 year of age).
botulinum spores are present throughout the environment and may be found in dust,
soil and improperly canned foods. Adults and children over 1 year of age are routinely
exposed to, but not normally affected by, C. botulinum spores.''
Honey Board advises:
Do not dip your baby's pacifier in honey.
not give your baby honey as medicine.
not add honey to your baby's food, water or formula.
to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (1978), ''the safety
of honey as a food for older children and adults remains unquestioned.''
this older group, here's a recipe for a spicy tea, made with honey, lemon, and
either echinacea, an herb with claims to being an immune booster, or the classic
For each mug:
1 tea bag, echinacea or chamomile as desired
2 tablespoons honey
1 tablespoon fresh lemon
tea bag, cinnamon and cloves in a mug. Fill 3/4 full with boiling water and let
steep for 5 minutes. Remove cinnamon and cloves and stir in honey and lemon juice.
1 tablespoon orange juice to each mug.
--Add 2 tablespoons rum or whiskey to
each mug for a ''Hot Toddy'' version.
time 5 minutes
By EMILY BERG/Staff Writer
Longdin gets scared every time she sends her daughter to school.
innocent kiss on the cheek from another child who just ate a peanut butter and
jelly sandwich could be the kiss of death for 5-year-old Julie Longdin.
Longdin and her 6-year-old brother, Joshua, have a life-threatening allergy to
peanuts. Just a sliver of a peanut or even peanut residue could send the children
into anaphylactic shock, causing their throats to swell shut and kill them.
like to find a school that will do a peanut-free school environment," she
said. "That way, the kids wouldn't ever have to worry about dying."
why Corralee Longdin wants the administration at Phelan Elementary School, where
Julie attends the preschool program, to create a "peanut-free" zone.
is already home schooled because too many children at Phelan Elementary have peanut
butter for breakfast or lunch, leaving him at risk of poisoning, his
mother said. Corralee plans to home school Julie next year for kindergarten for
the school to support a peanut-free zone because she said some parents are not
sensitive to her children's plight. The preschool is a separate classroom, and
youngsters get their food from the cafeteria first, so it's a safer environment
for the children. Peanut products are also not allowed in the classroom.
in spite of a sign banning peanuts on the classroom door, reminders in the weekly
newsletter and one-on-one conversations, a handful of parents continue to send
their children to school with the deadly product, Corralee Longdin said.
say it's an economic hardship for them," Corralee Longdin said.
Longdins aren't asking other parents to totally give up peanut products, just
during school hours.
of the two children has faced parents who don't think it's fair for them to have
to conform to her children, but Corralee Longdin said she would do it for them.
their child had the allergy, I would respect them and wouldn't want their child
to die," she said.Principal
Ryan Holman said he would explore a reasonable way to protect the Longdin children
at school, but isn't sure that would mean making the 700-student campus peanut-free."To
ensure every child doesn't bring a peanut butter sandwich would take a lot of
work," Holman said. "Is it reasonable for everyone to make that effort?"Holman
suggested peanut-free classrooms or even grade levels, because it isn't likely
a kindergartner and fifth-grader will cross paths often."I
think anytime we can do something for a child within reason we should, without
impacting the other kids negatively," Holman said.San
Bernardino County schools typically deal with severe food allergies by designating
a specific table in the cafeteria for the student's whole class and making sure
all parents and staff are aware of the problem, said Christine McGrew, spokeswoman
for the San Bernardino County superintendent of schools.It's
a balance of protecting the child without isolating them or violating the other
students' right to bring certain foods to school, McGrew said.Interestingly,
the number of people diagnosed with an allergy to peanuts is on the rise. About
1.5 million people suffer from a severe reaction to peanuts, according to the
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.Dr.
Alan Gorenberg, an allergy, immunology and internal medicine physician, said he
hasn't noticed an increase in the allergy locally. The number is rising nationally
compared to other countries because Americans consume more peanuts, Gorenberg
said.Most food allergies develop
after a person has eaten the food. Some doctors believe some infants have developed
the peanut allergy after their mother ate peanuts during the pregnancy or even
when they were breast feeding, Gorenberg said."There
is usually a predisposition to allergies in family background," he said.
"There is a genetic component, but the actual reason is not understood."Gorenberg
said the allergy can range in severity. An open jar of peanut butter could cause
a person on the opposite side of the room to break out in hives.Whether
a child would need a peanut-free zone to attend school safely would depend on
the individual circumstances, Gorenberg said."In
most circumstances elementary age children are able to avoid eating peanuts,"
he said. "The chance of a child having an allergy reaction in the classroom
or cafeteria just from another child's peanut butter sandwich is extremely small."Even
so, Julie and Joshua Longdin both know to ask if there are peanuts in something
before they eat it.Julie Longdin
said she always asks if there are peanuts in anything she is offered and will
ask an adult to recheck the item."You
should check again, just in case," Julie Longdin said.
Risk to Consumers 'Extremely Small' -CDC Chief
Yahoo! News Tue, Feb 24, 2004
(Reuters) - The U.S. Centers for Disease Control said on Tuesday the
of American consumers contracting a human form of the deadly mad cow disease was
"extremely small." Dr. Julie Gerberding, director of the CDC, said in
testimony prepared for a Senate panel hearing that federal agriculture officials
have taken steps to reduce the risk of humans contracting variant Creutzfeld-Jakob
Disease (vCJD), a form of the brain-wasting disease. "There is a possibility
that domestically-acquired variant CJD may appear in the United States. However,
this possibility is believed to be extremely small," Gerberding said.
2002, a woman living in Florida was diagnosed with variant CJD but contracted
it while living in Britain,according to the CDC.
better test for mad cow
Taking tissue from slaughtered animals is
now the only method, and its costs
can be high
Monday, February 23, 2004
Nicholas K. Geranios, The Associated Press
Wash. -- When the nation's first case of mad cow disease was discovered on a Washington
farm, it took the slaughter of more than 700 healthy cattle to prove the disease
had not spread.
because there's no test for mad cow that can be done on live animals, and there
may not be one for some time.
don't know how far away we are," said Don Knowles, who runs a U.S. Department
of Agriculture laboratory in Pullman that is working with Washington State University
scientists to develop such a test.
and announcements are coming out all the time," Knowles said. "At this
moment, none of these tests has enough validation data behind them."
test that could diagnose an infection quickly could help keep contaminated beef
out of the food chain and cut the economic loss that comes from slaughtering healthy
animals, according to a 2003 report by the National Research Council. The animals
killed in Washington state, for example, would have been worth well over half
a million dollars at market.
cow disease is a public health concern because scientists believe humans who eat
infected beef products can develop a brain-wasting disease called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease, which has killed 153 people worldwide.
detection also could prevent contaminated human blood from entering the blood
supply, the report said.
misshapen proteins -- called prions -- thought to cause mad cow disease concentrate
in the brain and central nervous system, and the best test for the disease involves
killing the animal and analyzing a cross section of its brain.
a test for living animals should be a top priority, but it does not appear to
be imminent, according to the NRC report. "Major breakthroughs are needed
to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity required to test live animal
and human tissues," the report says.
are following a theory that prions may move through the blood supply, and are
looking for a way to detect them there, Knowles said. They are also looking for
a genetic marker that would reveal when prions are present.
Pullman researchers were the first to develop a test to detect a similar disease
in sheep called scrapie, said Charlie Powell, a spokesman for the university's
College of Veterinary Medicine.
was the first and only test that can detect the class of diseases known as transmissible
spongiform encephalopathies -- which includes mad cow disease -- in living animals,
Knowles said. But it does not work on cattle, he said.
lab also was heavily involved in creating the most widely used test to detect
mad cow disease after an animal is killed.
capabilities assumed greater urgency when the nation's first case of mad cow disease
was announced shortly before Christmas. An infected Holstein from Mabton that
was slaughtered Dec. 9 was diagnosed with mad cow disease on Dec. 22. It is the
only case ever found in the United States.
to assure the public that the Washington case did not spread across the country
prompted officials to euthanize 704 cows at various Northwest farms. It took more
than a month to track many of the animals that might have had contact with the
infected cow, and post-mortem tests revealed that none of those animals had mad
at slaughter generally selling for $850 to $1,000, the 704 cattle sacrificed to
make sure this outbreak was contained were a tiny fraction of the state's $500
million beef industry.
the loss of export markets has hurt U.S. cattlemen. And the financial impacts
of a larger outbreak would be staggering. The British beef industry was decimated
by mad cow outbreaks that killed 143 people in the 1990s.
issue of testing is a political football. While some consumers and U.S. trading
partners have called for testing every slaughtered cow for the disease, others
say that is costly and unnecessary for food safety. The cattle industry is also
split on the issue.
days, the industry is most interested in ensuring that any bovine spongiform encephalopathy,
or BSE, tests be accurate enough to reassure customers in the United States and
foreign countries that American beef is safe, said Michele Peterson of the National
Cattlemen's Beef Association in Denver.
no accurate BSE test for living cattle is on the horizon, "the discussion
industrywide has been minimal" on the topic, she said.
Food Safety Informaiton
Panel advises testing dead cows for virus [sic]
02/24. U.S. food sector may
be vulnerable to attack
02/24. Beware of restaurant doggy bags
illness while travelling
02/24. Guest editorial - Business, regulatory and
02/24. Industry needs to address mounting perception problem
Feeding practices have to be changed
02/24. A threat, but limited: A clear-headed
view of new BSE strain
02/24. New fears over GM contamination
foods are not safe'
02/24. China eyes GM food crops to cut farmers' costs
Irradiation of sweet potatoes from Hawaii
02/24. Advice: Test Downers
Japan confirms 10th BSE case
02/24. Illegal eggs continue to turn up in stores
Bird 'flu in the USA
02/24. USDA sees Mexico, Canada easing mad cow beef bans
Number of mad-cow tests in NW didn't reach federal agency's
02/24. U.S. Frustrated
with Mexico on Mad Cow
02/24. U.S. panel sees no need to test all cattle for
02/24. BSE Risk to Consumers 'Extremely Small' -CDC Chief
give honey to babies under 1 year of age
02/24. Outbreak points out vulnerability
of U.S. food supply
02/24. Local family works to improve nation's food safety
02/24. Family sues over E. coli
02/24. US says China accepts biotech
soybeans, corn, cotton
02/24. Aylmer Meat threatens lawsuits
02/24. Strategic Diagnostics to Report Fourth Quarter and Fiscal
02/24. Local family works to improve nation's food safety rules
Investigations into USDA's handling of BSE discovery multiply
of Exploding Beer Bottles
02/23. Deadly peanuts
02/23. Grain allergy a risk
factor for schizophrenia, study says
02/23. Mad Cow remains mystery, scientist
tells Missoula crowd
02/23. Cats can die from `mad cow'-tainted meals
TCRC hosts forum on Mad Cow disease
02/22. A better test for mad cow
Kanagawa begins checks after discovery of 10th BSE case
02/22. NCBA applauds
conclusion of BSE investigation
02/22. Kanagawa cow likely to have BSE [Japan]
Industry launches pre-harvest guidelines for E. coli
02/21. World Awaits
More GM Crops as Safety Debate Rages
02/21. Mercer County couple pushing for
improved food safety law
02/21. Crops 'widely contaminated' by genetically
02/20. National case-control study of Salmonella Enteritidis
02/20. Letter to firms that grow, pack, or ship fresh lettuce and f
Food Irradiation Education Activities
02/20. National Center for Electron Beam
Food Research Offering Int
02/20. Beef Ambassadors at Cattle Industry Convention
New Shareholder at Linac Technologies
02/20. Food Technology Services' Stock
Soars after Salmonella Scare
02/20. Minister's drinking water claim incredible
USDA claims about effectiveness of mad cow surveillance syst
02/20. NMA statement
on non-ambulatory status of BSE-infected cow f
02/20. Millions of cattle must
die, plan says: Cattlemen fear 'wall
02/20. Ann M. Veneman¡¯s Keynote Address:¡°Ensuring
A Healthy Food Su
02/20. Food Standards Australia New Zealand¡¯s regulatory
02/20. Food safety
02/20. Prion study to fill gaps: researcher:
Program shouldn't 'rei
02/20. SuperSafeMark¢â Train-the-Trainer programs -
CANADA: Bird flu outbreak discovered in Canada
02/20. More evidence mad cow
not a 'downer'
02/20. McDonald's throws weight behind cattle traceability
USDA grants approval for Clemens' irradiator
02/20. Cattle Confusion
GM crops nearing approval
02/20. Experts warn on Spanish eggs
View: Mad Cow ruse is hurting cattle biz
02/20. Douala City Council battles
cholera with hygiene campaign [Angola]
02/20. Agriculture department dismisses
unsafe chicken claims [South Africa] -
02/20. Albert Heijn removes salmonella
02/20. [Yersinia] Is lettuce the culprit?
Dirty Dining report: schools follow-up, clean and dirty
02/20. New Hampshire
Health Officials Review Food-Service Safety Ri
02/20. Memo to Working Americans:
'Desktop Dining' Trend Demands Ne
02/20. TAKEAWAY GETS THE HYGIENE RED CARD
MPs criticse FSA over cockle bed closures
02/20. Court upholds redress for
farmer State fined over wrongful r
02/19. Slaughterhouse Owners Dispute
02/19. Farmed salmon survey -
02/19. Mislabeling fine: Canadian
retailer Shoppers Food Mart is fi
02/19. UK: Britain will give green light
to GM ? leaked report
02/19. Family backs mad cow claim
Restaurant Association maintains commitment to ensu
02/19. Promoting food safety
confidence: The new Irish Feile Bia ou
02/19. Safety alert for food firms
Feed Ban Compliance High
02/19. House committee challenges USDA handling of
02/19. Poland gets more time
02/19. Scientists discover new kind
of mad cow
02/19. Gluten allergy largely goes undiagnosed, study finds
Govt. to Finance Sunflower Seed Butter
02/19. New strain of BSE
sought for food permitting, handwashing
02/19. Hepatitis A outbreak prompts
urging of sanitation
02/19. FEATURE-World treaty may become new focus for GMO
02/19. Chiquita Earns CSR Certification for Farming Operations in T
Questions about Washington Cow Remain
02/19. National Restaurant Association
Maintains Commitment to Ensu
02/19. Food safety to come under law soon [Barbados]
California asks USDA to revisit mad cow secrecy agreement
02/19. MONTEREY CO.
HEALTH OFFICIALS CONFISCATE TAINTED CHEESE
02/19. Microwave Could Make You
Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness
FDA Updates - "What You Need to Know to Ensure Compliance With the New
Speeches Page: Updated February 24, 2004
Library of Export Requirements:
Updated February 24, 2004
Statement by Ag Sec'y and U.S. Trade Rep Robert
B. Zoellick Regarding China¡¯s Approval
Statement Regarding China¡¯s Approval
of Final Safety Certificates for Key U.S. Agricultural
Letter to Firms
that Grow, Pack, or Ship Fresh Lettuce and Fresh Tomatoes
FDA Collection and
Analysis of Food for Perchlorate - High Priority - DFP # 04 - 11
Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation [Acrylamide]
Secretary Ann M. Veneman¡¯s Keynote Address - Ag Outlook Forum 2004
of Antimicrobial Drug Residues from Food of Animal Origin on the Human Intestinal
Adoption of the FDA Food Code By Local, State, and Tribal Governments
Program on Clinical Trials for Serious or Life-threatening Diseases
on Formats Available for the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List (ICSSL)
OPPD (Policy) What's New Page: Updated February 17, 2004
Q and A Regarding
the Interim Final Rule on Registration of Food Facilities (Edition 3)
400 Eagan High School students out sick
02/23. City looks into possible case
of food poisoning
02/20. Oysters - not always aphrodisiacs: Despite warnings,
02/19. Factory meal lands hundreds in hospital [Indonesia]
300 people fall ill on Carnival Cruise
02/18. Investigators Determine Cause
Of Illness At Gund Arena
02/18. Intestinal Virus Keeping Local Doctors Busy
Chi-Chi's agreement awaited
02/17. Summer heat spoiling meals [Australia]
SA family pushes for poisoning settlement
02/16. Stars overcome food poisoning
to win as Kiwis make a meal of
02/13. Food poison cases grow [China]
Presenting potential new blood tests for vCJD
02/23. Lock chock detector
Bacterial Toxin Detection - Cholera
02/23. Microbubbles Make Shellfish Safe
02/22. New Livestock Feed Test Guards Against Mad Cow Disease
Trojan Technologies Awarded Contract for Water Reuse in Cali
02/21. NDSU researchers
say radio tags could track livestock
02/20. Checking grain in small batches
New Chromogenic Bacillus Cereus Agar More Sensitive than Traditional edia
Prionics rapid BSE test helps identify new strain of mad cow
02/18. Rapid diarrhoea
02/18. Freezing Process Seen as Emerging Food Safety Strategy
e-FoodSafety.com, Inc.'s Patent Pending 'Food Safe' Process
Is lettuce the culprit?
20/02/2004 - Scientists in the US have for the first time identified a fresh product
as the source of an outbreak of human Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections,
a recent medical report says.
in the US have for the first time identified a fresh product as the source of
an outbreak of human Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections, a recent medical
The article, which is due to be published in the March 1 issue
of The Journal of Infectious Diseases says the outbreak was identified in Finland
and traced epidemiologically to farms producing lettuce there.
pseudotuberculosis, first identified in 1883, causes infections characterized
by fever and abdominal pain that are often confused with acute appendicitis. The
microbe is well known in veterinary medicine as the cause of illnesses in hares,
deer, and sheep, among other animals. Y. pseudotuberculosis infections in humans
are relatively rare, and while foodborne transmission has long been suspected,
attempts to trace the pathogen to a concrete source of contamination in the past
have been unsuccessful.
October of 1998, two microbiology laboratories in southern Finland discovered
an alarming increase in infections during routine surveillance of laboratory-diagnosed
infections. J. Pekka Nuorti, of the National Public Health Institute of Finland,
and colleagues from the University of Helsinki, the National Public Health Institute
of Finland, and the National Food Agency of Finland initiated epidemiological
and environmental investigations that would eventually reveal the source as contaminated
case-control study, 38 patients with confirmed infections were questioned about
what and where they ate in the two weeks before the onset of their symptoms. The
investigation led to four lunch cafeterias where the patients reported eating
iceberg lettuce. The lettuce served in those cafeterias was traced to four farms
in the southwest archipelago region of Finland.
no lettuce remained from the shipments identified from the cafeterias, Y. pseudotuberculosis
was discovered in soil, irrigation water, and lettuce samples from one of those
farms. The investigators suspect that the pathogen was spread by the feces of
roe deer, which have been carriers of the pathogen in the past. Deer faeces were
found in and around the open, unfenced fields where the lettuce was grown.
an accompanying editorial, Robert V. Tauxe, of the Centres for Disease Control
and Prevention, notes that the next step in preventing future outbreaks of this
kind might begin with studying the behavior of Y. pseudotuberculosis in lettuce
plants and attempting to define whether deer or other animals are the specific
reservoir of the pathogen.
investigations may lead to better methods of prevention--from fenced-in fields
to vaccinations of implicated animal populations or the use of disinfecting strategies
such as irradiation--and give those who enjoy fresh fruits and vegetables more
security about what they eat.
way it seems that producers of a number of fresh foods, produced in environments
where it is difficult to fence out all wild animals, will have to give further
thought to this consideration if they are to maintain required health and safety
Owners Dispute USDA Claims
(The Associated Press)
Standing in front
of their family business, the owners of a small slaughterhouse that killed a Holstein
with the nation's first case of mad cow challenged the government's assertion
the animal couldn't walk. The
cow walked off a truck at Vern's Moses Lake Meat Co. and exhibited no signs of
the central nervous disorder, said Tom Ellestad, who co-manages the plant. The
issue is important because Agriculture Department officials who monitor meat plants
target "downer" cattle - animals that are injured or exhibit symptoms
of disease - for testing of mad cow. Critics have argued that the agency also
needs to test healthy animals as a safeguard against the brain-wasting illness,
which can incubate for four or five years.
said Wednesday there is a strong possibility the illness never would have been
detected had his company not tested it as part of a voluntary program to check
healthy animals for the disease. "No
one would have ever known," he said while flanked by his wife, sons, brother
and parents. "Their premise for testing is false. The whole industry has
been injured, and not just the meat industry - the livestock industry - because
of shortcomings in USDA's policy." Ed
Loyd, a USDA spokesman, denied Ellestad's claims. The department has said a veterinarian
at the plant tagged the cow as a downer. "Our
records clearly indicate that this animal was not able to walk," Loyd said.Loyd
said the department's inspector general's office is investigating how the case
was handled. The announcement
came a day after a U.S. House committee challenged the Agriculture Department's
claims that the cow was lame.
earlier provided an affidavit of his claims to the watchdog group Government Accountability
Project. That group provided the information to the U.S. House Government Reform
Committee, which challenged the department's claims in a letter sent Tuesday to
Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman. Eating
meat from animals with mad cow has been linked to a rare but fatal condition in
people, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although no cases have been traced
to U.S. beef. More than 35 countries have banned imports of U.S. beef products.
researchers say radio tags could track livestock
2/23/2004 1:34 AM
N.D. (AP) ?Research at North Dakota State University could satisfy food safety
concerns highlighted by the United States' first case of mad cow disease, university
Researchers are working with tiny radio transmitters that could
track the nation's livestock, said Phil Boudjouk, the school's vice president
for research. The
technology has become a hot topic among members of Congress and officials at the
U.S. Department of Agriculture who are searching for a better livestock identification
system in the wake of the nation's first case of mad cow disease, discovered late
last year. Proponents
of radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags on cattle ears say the technology
can maintain extensive data about an animal's existence, including its breeding,
age, weight and medical history. The
tags can be automatically read, sending their data directly to a computer database,
by sensors placed at feed lots, slaughterhouses and other points along the chain
of livestock ownership. North
Dakota State is one of a few universities in the country capable of developing,
producing and field testing the tracking devices, Boudjouk said.
main component is radio frequency sensors, such as those developed by NDSU and
Alien Technologies, a company planning to produce the tags at a new Fargo manufacturing
plant in 2005. Under
a cooperative agreement, NDSU and Alien Technologies licensed their prototypes
for defense systems about two years ago, Boudjouk said. The same technology is
being used for livestock, he said."There's
been a lot in the news about applying this technology to deal with food safety
issues," he said at a news conference Friday. "We do have the complete
suite of talents to deal with the issues at hand." With
the sensors fitted to livestock tags, radio signals can relay animals' identification
information, said Joel Jorgenson, an engineering professor at NDSU. Researchers
in Fargo continue to improve the sensors' designs and branch out into new applications,
Jorgenson said. Marc
Bauer, an NDSU animal nutritionist, said the next generation of tags will enable
ranchers to monitor their animals' temperature and other health indicators, Bauer
release of some applications could be "several years" away, Boudjouk
envisions ranchers using hand-held monitors that read signals from the tags to
check on their herds' health. "There
are all kinds of interesting possibilities down the line," he said.
Eagan High School students out sick
Minn. - Nearly 400 students Eagan High School students spent the first day of
the school week at home, most of them sick from an apparent virus. So did their
principal. Monday's absences accounted for about 17 percent of the student body
of 2,200, Assistant Principal David Lange said. Normal absences are about 6 percent
to 7 percent, he said. Polly Reikowski, the school's principal, also was absent
Monday because of flu-like symptoms, Lange said. She was expected to return Tuesday.
Health officials urged the school to undergo extensive disinfection after several
parents said something the students ate Friday may have made them sick, Lange
said. Chicken nuggets were on the lunch menu that day, he said. Doug Schultz,
a health department spokesman, said the cause was still being investigated.
health officials didn't rule out food poisoning, Lange said, they were considering
that the illness could be the norovirus, formerly called Norwalk-like virus, a
"winter vomiting disease" that is spread quickly through personal contact.
the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, norovirus is a common cause
of foodborne illness. A person with it can contaminate food while preparing it.Norovirus
occurs most often during the winter. It causes nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and
occasionally a headache and low-grade fever. Symptoms generally last two to three
days, without serious or long-term health effects.