debate over raw vs. pasteurized
September 11, 2004
Nebraska State senators heard Friday traditional
science and medicine lined up against a growing group of consumers who buy raw
milk from local farmers, drink it, give it to their children and believe it is
healthier than the pasteurized product on grocery shelves.
The story says that
both sides were equally adamant in the hearing, which drew around 130 people who
packed the room.
Sally Fallon, president of the Weston A. Price Foundation,
a national group dedicated to providing access across the country to raw milk
from grass-fed cattle, was cited as saying the heat of pasteurization compromises
nutrients in milk.
Steve L. Taylor, a food science professor and head of the
Food Processing Center at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, was cited as saying
pasteurization does not significantly reduce the nutritional value of milk.
was further cited as saying that mothers who give raw milk to their children find
they don't get colds or earaches.
Taylor was quoted as saying, "The very
people who are most at risk - young children, the elderly and those who are ill
- are encouraged that raw milk is better for them or will cure them."
wondered aloud where the truth was as one group argued for consumer freedom to
choose and the other side argued that pasteurization is critical to protecting
"It is practically impossible to eliminate the occasional
contamination of raw milk. Pasteurization is therefore a key step and critical
to protecting public health, Taylor said, and he listed common diseases that can
be transmitted through raw milk: tuberculosis, e-coli, salmonellosis, yersiniosis,
But a California dairyman who sells raw milk to more than 400
stores says safety does not have to be a problem. There have been no reported
illnesses from his 8 million servings of raw milk, in a state that regulates raw
milk production and requires special labeling, said Mark McAfee. In fact no human
pathogens have ever been found in his milk by state regulators or through is own
testing, he said.
occurrences decline in France
Pete Hisey on 9/13/04 for Meatingplace.com
of Article: http://www.meatingplace.com/
study of test results from millions of French cattle shows that the incidence
of BSE has declined significantly since regulations requiring the removal of specified
risk materials (SRMs) from cattle feed and dead animals from the meat processing
and bone meal industries in 1996.
was a significant increase in the rate of infection in birth cohorts immediately
prior to the passage of the regulations, and then a significant decrease in cattle
born after the regulations took effect.
study was published in Veterinary Research, a French periodical.
lands $10.3 million NIH biodefense contract to unlock proteomes of salmonella
of Article: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/
project will explore how our cells interact with infectious-agents and point the
way to new, fast-acting drugs
Wash. ?Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has received a $10.3 million biodefense
contract from the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Agents (NIAID)
to identify the proteins that regulate the bacteria that cause salmonella poisoning
and typhoid fever, and the monkey pox virus.
five-year award is the Department of Energy lab's third $10 million National Institutes
of Health grant or contract in the past year and the second for Richard D. Smith,
principal investigator and a Battelle Fellow at PNNL.
monkey pox, which serves as a close viral analog to deadly smallpox, two species
from the genus Salmonella will be examined: typhimurium (which causes food poisoning)
and typhi (typhoid fever). These pathogens, which spread quickly and are not easily
combated with conventional drugs, could lead to major epidemics if enlisted by
terrorists. NIAID is banking that determining which microbial proteins interact
with which human host cells will point drug designers toward quick and effective
treatments during an outbreak.
conduct the analysis of these microbial proteins, scientists at PNNL will use
proteomics instruments and approaches unavailable elsewhere that simultaneously
combine the high-resolution separation of proteins with their identification,
on a suite of powerful mass spectrometers developed at the W.R. Wiley Environmental
Molecular Science Laboratory on the PNNL campus.
at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland will prepare the infectious
agents for the proteomics at PNNL and will assist in analyzing the data generated
there. The OHSU group has been able to knock out key genes that regulate the degree
of pathogenic activity in the microbes. This capability will allow researchers
to test proteins identified at PNNL as candidates to be targeted by drugs.
(www.pnl.gov) is a DOE Office of Science laboratory that solves complex problems
in energy, national security, the environment and life sciences by advancing the
understanding of physics, chemistry, biology and computation. PNNL employs 3,800,
has a $600 million annual budget, and has been managed by Ohio-based Battelle
since the lab's inception in 1965.
DOE/Pacific Northwest National
botulism in the United States, 1990-2000
Jeremy Sobel,* Nicole Tucker,* Alana Sulka,* Joseph McLaughlin,*?
and Susan Maslanka*
for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and †Alaska State Department
of Health and Social Services, Anchorage, Alaska, USA
Suggested citation for
Foodborne botulism, a potentially lethal neuroparalytic
disease, is caused by ingesting preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. We
reviewed surveillance data and reports from 1990 to 2000. Of 263 cases from 160
foodborne botulism events (episode of one or more related cases) in the United
States, 103 (39%) cases and 58 events occurred in Alaska. Patients' median age
was 48 years; 154 (59%) were female; the case-fatality rate was 4%. The median
number of cases per event was 1 (range 1?7). Toxin type A caused 51% of all cases;
toxin type E caused 90% of Alaska cases. A particular food was implicated in 126
(79%) events. In the lower 49 states, a noncommercial food item was implicated
in 70 (91%) events, most commonly home-canned vegetables (44%). Two restaurant-associated
outbreaks affected 25 persons. All Alaska cases were attributable to traditional
Alaska Native foods. Botulism prevention efforts should be focused on those who
preserve food at home, Alaska Natives, and restaurant workers.
enterica serotype Uganda infection in New York City and Chicago
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Roderick C. Jones,* Vasudha Reddy,¢Ó Laura
Kornstein,¢Ó Julio R. Fernandez,* Faina Stavinsky,¢Ó Alice Agasan,¢Ó and Susan I.
of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA; and ¢ÓNew York City Department of Health
and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York, USA
with distinct strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Uganda, a rare serotype,
occurred in New York City and Chicago during the summer of 2001. Both outbreaks
were linked to eating ready-to-eat pork products. This serotype may emerge as
a more frequent cause of human infections.
Type E outbreak associated with eating a beached whale, Alaska
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Joseph B. McLaughlin,* Jeremy Sobel,*
Tracey Lynn,¢Ó Elizabeth Funk,¢Ô and John P. Middaugh¢Ô
for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ¢ÓUnited States Department
of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; and ¢ÔAlaska Department of Health
and Social Services, Anchorage, Alaska, USA
Suggested citation for this article
report an outbreak of botulism that occurred in July 2002 in a group of 12 Alaskan
Yu'pik Eskimos who ate blubber and skin from a beached beluga whale. Botulism
death rates among Alaska Natives have declined in the last 20 years, yet incidence
food safety detection system speeds pathogen detection
Quicker containment of food
poisoning outbreaks now possible
Collaborative work commissioned by safefood,
the Food Safety Promotion Board, has resulted in the validation and accreditation
of a DNA-based commercial system, ABAX, for the rapid and accurate detection of
Salmonella and Listeria pathogens. Using the new system, testing for Salmonella
now takes 24 hours compared with four days using the conventional culture methods.
Listeria testing time also reduced from seven days to 48 hours. A survey of 500
different food samples confirmed that this new testing system is as sensitive
as conventional methods in detecting both of these food-borne pathogens therefore
offering the general public extra confidence in the protection of public health.
research was carried out by the Food Microbiology Laboratory, St Finbarrs Hospital,
Cork and the Public Health Laboratory, Waterford Regional Hospital as part of
the synergy programme, funded by safefood. The purpose of this programme is to
promote ongoing research and development and also to establish links between laboratories
on the island of Ireland.
Commenting on the research, Thomas Quigley, Director
Science & Technical, safefood said, We were very excited to see the results
of this synergy?project. This new system will see the detection time of two potentially
dangerous pathogens substantially reduced to enable speedier containment of any
foodborne outbreaks offering the general public even greater confidence in the
food chain and the protection of public health.Commenting on the findings, Noel
Shanaghy, Chief Medical Scientist of the Waterford Public Health Laboratory said,
As well as the introduction of a new accredited rapid test, both laboratories
benefited from participating in this project and the experience gained from working
together formed relationships and links which will be valuable for further co-operation.safefood
anticipates that the two laboratories who participated in this project will now
be in a position to pass on the knowledge and expertise gained to other laboratories
throughout the island, ensuring a quick and reliable turnaround for salmonella
and listeria testing throughout the country.
is a bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. It can
also be found on raw meats, poultry, eggs and in unpasteurised milk. The symptoms
of salmonella food poisoning are diarrhoea, cramps vomiting and fever. The incubation
period is from 12-36 hours. The illness called salmonellosis, is sometimes severe
and admission to hospital may be necessary.
In 2003 there were 662 laboratory–confirmed
cases of salmonellosis on the island of Ireland, 449 cases were reported to the
National Disease Surveillance Centre NDSC in ROI1 and 213 cases were reported
to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre in Northern Ireland CDSC-NI2.
is transmitted primarily in food but it is destroyed by heat treatment and/or
cooking. It may be present in certain raw foods and certain foods, which have
not been cooked at the proper temperatures. Listeria is resistant to cold temperatures
and may grow in the refrigerator. Foods through which it is transmitted are
milk and unpasteurised milk products
Certain soft-ripened cheeses, blue-veined
Under-cooked meats and meat products including poultry and pates,
raw vegetables, salads and sea-foods.
In certain rare circumstances it can
cause illnesses. These include influenza-like illness, miscarriage and meningitis.
1 Provisional 2003 figures from the National Disease Surveillance Centre,
2 Communicable Diseases ?Provisional Summary 2003, Communicable Disease
Surveillance Centre in Northern Ireland, CDSC-NI
State offers venison workshop for successful hunters
University Park, Pa.- Time was when every deer hunter
was taught how to butcher a deer, process the meat and prepare a variety of tasty
venison dishes. But these days, it sometimes seems like that vital information
is not passed down. So Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences is opening
its Sept. 25th Venison 101 Workshop -- which has been offered to extension educators
in the past -- to the public. "It's a one-day, intensive hands-on program
designed for hunters or family members who have an interest in expanding their
knowledge of deer diseases, processing venison, and preparing venison for friends
and family," says Cathy Cutter, assistant professor of food science. The
workshop, which will be held from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. at the Penn State Meats
Lab near Beaver Stadium on the University Park campus, begins with an evaluation
of deer diseases (including chronic wasting disease), followed by proper field
dressing, an opportunity for hands-on processing, and cooking/canning demonstrations.
Participants will be able to taste venison products and interact with speakers.
deadline to register for the Venison 101 Workshop is Sept. 15. The cost of $150
per person includes educational materials, lunch, breaks, venison and door prizes.
register or to get more information about the Venison 101 Workshop, visit the
Web at http://foodsafety.cas.psu.edu/venison101.html or contact Cathy Cutter by
phone at (814) 865-8862 or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.