and Sanitation of Processing Equipment
Training Program for All Employees
source from cornell.edu/
Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), O157 and Non-O157
source from wisc.edu
of Food Protection
Journal of Food Safety
A Preliminary Study of Kashar Cheese and Its Organoleptic Qualities
Matured in Bee Wax
Effect of Coating and Wrapping materials on the shelf life of
apple (Malus domestica cv.Borkh)
Prevalence of bacteria in the muscle of shrimp in processing
submit your research note or articles for Internet Journal of Food Safety, click
Processors who need specific tranings
food processors need
supplemental food safety training.
Also, there are
many food safety
educators. FoodHACCP is trying to
Safety Highlighted in 2005 Dietary Guidelines
News - Winter/Spring 2005 - Vol 9 No.2/3
Dietary Guidelines for Americans are out. As a joint effort by the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),
the guidelines are reviewed and updated every 5 years to offer the most current,
scientifically-based, information to the American public in the area of nutrition
and health. The latest version of the Dietary Guidelines features food safety
as one of the nine focal areas.
The key food safety recommendations to avoid
microbial foodborne illness are:
Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits
and vegetables. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed.
raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing, or storing foods.
Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
perishable food promptly and defrost foods properly.
Avoid raw (unpasteurized)
milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs
or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized
juices, and raw sprouts.
There are additional recommendations for special
population groups, including infants and young children, pregnant women, older
adults, and those who are immunocompromised:
Do not eat raw or undercooked
fish or shellfish.
Only eat deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated
to steaming hot.
The recommendations support the four key
messages currently emphasized by the USDA's Partnership in Food Safety Education:
"Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill," with the additional message to "avoid
certain potentially unsafe foods." The first two recommendations address
personal hygiene and prevention of cross contamination. Consumers should be instructed
to "wash with soap and water all food contact surfaces before and after food
preparation" and to "wash hands using soap and running warm water for
at least 20 seconds, then dry with a clean towel." Additionally, all fruits
and vegetables should be "rinsed under running water prior to eating."
Contrary to popular belief, washing and rinsing raw meat and poultry can greatly
increase risk of cross contamination and is unnecessary, since cooking destroys
any bacteria on the meat.
To assure that foods are cooked adequately, consumers
are advised to "use a food thermometer to make sure foods are cooked to safe
internal temperatures." Leftovers should "be reheated to the proper
internal temperature of 165¨¬F." The "chill" message emphasizes
the need to chill all perishable food promptly and store at 41¨¬F or below. Foods
should be defrosted in the refrigerator, under cool running water, or in the microwave,
and not on the counter.
Lastly, the message to avoid unsafe foods is of particular
importance to those individuals at greatest risk of foodborne disease, including
pregnant women, infants, older adults and persons with medical conditions that
affect immune function. The foods listed to avoid are those that can harbor pathogenic
microorganisms and have been implicated in foodborne outbreaks.
Go online to
view the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 fact sheet and the Food Safety
section of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report.
Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report: Food Safety. Available at http://www.healthierus.gov
Fair Linked To E. coli Outbreak
Yahoo! News Fri, Apr 01, 2005
of Article: http://news.yahoo.com
Several new cases of the E. coli illness
are the cause of more concern for parents across Central Florida. Five more children
have been diagnosed with the illness, bringing the total to 22, WESH NewsChannel
2 reported. State health officials said the number of possible cases of E. coli
infection or the related kidney disease, Hemoleytic Uremic Syndrome, has jumped
from 24 to 33. Also, a third fair is now being linked to the infection that has
sickened so many people in Florida. Florida Health Secretary John Agwunobi said
Thursday that five confirmed cases appear to have come from the State Fair in
Tampa in mid-February. He also said it looks more like all of the cases are linked
to the same petting zoo, Agventure Farm Shows. "The fact that we can link
them, a person who went to a fair in Tampa with a person who went to a fair in
Orlando or Plant City, by the DNA of their E. coli, shows us and tells us they
must have come in contact with the same source," Agwunobi said.
imports: Canadians will incorporate Australian beef processing technology originally
used in a U.S. plant
March 30, 2005
MeatNews.com Volume 7, Issue
Ranchers Choice Beef Cooperative -- a farmer-owned
beef processing facility under construction in western Manitoba, Canada -- will
use de-boning technology imported from Australia. The equipment is being removed
from a closed Ferndale Foods meat-packing plant in Ferndale, Washington. According
to a report, the move will make the facility the only hot-boning beef facility
in North America with the Australian technology.
"There is no other plant
like this in Canada,¡± Frieda Krpan, a beef producer and secretary of the board
of directors, said. ¡°And I'm not aware of one in the U.S. It's a big selling point
for us. It will give our meat a lot of pluses."
Hot-boning is popular
in Australia and New Zealand because it eliminates the risk of bacterial contamination,
reduces carcass shrinkage, and offers a 24-hour turnaround on slaughtering and
"With everyone concerned about E. coli today this gives bacteria
no chance to set in," Krpan said. "It creates a super-clean meat."
the Australian technology, once the beef is de-boned, it is packaged instantly
and "blast frozen" -- something Krpan said is also relatively new to
The CN$13-million plant, funded by producers, private capital, and
government funds, is being built to fill the urgent need for in-province slaughtering
after the U.S. border closed to Canadian cattle following discover of cattle infected
with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, preventing slaughter cattle from being
exported to the United States. "I feel a very quiet anger building out there
and a quiet determination that we are not going to let this happen to us again,"
Krpan said. The new plant is expected to be operational by late fall and create
70 to 80 jobs in the town of about 7,500. The cooperative has 3,100 members. From
cows and bulls of at least 30 months of age, the end product will be boneless
beef, sausage, and hamburger patties, she said.
Peggy Kent, owner of the closed
former Ferndale plant said the BSE situation forced a financial reorganization
and put her out of the beef-processing business. Her plant was a main outlet for
cull dairy cattle and Canadian beef cattle. However, she is glad the equipment
is helping Manitoba rebuild its slaughtering capacity.
miniaturised chip dramatically reduces time taken for DNA analysis
of Article: http://www.physorg.com/l
The portable device will speed up performing paternity tests, identifying
bacterial infections and detecting genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
team of researchers at the Universitat Aut¬änoma de Barcelona has developed new
miniature sensors for analysing DNA. The sensors have the same size and thickness
as a fingernail and reduce the time needed to identify DNA chains to several minutes
or a few hours, depending on each chain. These sensors can be applied to many
different tasks, ranging from paternity tests and identifying people to detecting
genetically modified food, identifying bacterial strains in foodborne illnesses
and testing genetic toxicity in new drugs. Once mass production of the sensors
begins, their cost and availability will be similar to that of pregnancy test
kits found in pharmacies.
The researchers Salvador Alegret, Manuel del
Valle and Maria Isabel Pividori, all of whom are members of the Sensors and Biosensors
Group at the UAB's Department of Chemistry, developed the new sensors based on
their experience in research with electrochemical sensors. These can identify
a substance by chemically interacting with it and converting this interaction
into an electrical current that they measure.
detect DNA, the new miniaturised electrochemical genosensors have a probe containing
DNA fragments that complement the DNA they aim to detect. For example, to detect
Salmonella in a sample of mayonnaise, the probe has fragments of the type of DNA
that complements that found in a group of genes that identify the bacteria. When
the probe is submerged into the mayonnaise, some of the DNA fragments from the
bacterial cells join the complementing fragments from the probe, creating a measurable
electrical current. The sensor converts this current into a signal that can be
seen by the person controlling the tests, making him aware there are bacteria.
Also, because the sensors are very small and easy to manipulate, it is possible
to assemble a set of sensors that can collect data simultaneously and deduce information
about the bacteria such as which strain caused the foodborne illness.
type of analysis already takes place in laboratories, but until now the experimental
measures needed were not suitable for in situ analysis. By using the new sensors
developed by UAB scientists, the time taken to identify the source of infection
for Legionella would decrease from two days, as is currently the case using organic
production techniques, to just thirty minutes. In trials developed with the support
of the UAB's Department of Genetics and Microbiology, the new sensors have enabled
Salmonella to be identified in four and a half hours, compared to three to five
days using the traditional microbiological methods. This method for identifying
bacteria could also be used to detect other infectious agents such as Campylobacter
and Listeria, and the sensor could easily be adapted for use in medicine, environmental
monitoring and the industrial sector.
important applications for DNA sensors include: detecting genetically modified
organisms in food, either in basic ingredients or in prepared food; identifying
people, either to establish blood relations or to find criminal evidence; and
testing the toxicity of different drugs to establish what damage they may cause
to the DNA molecule of disease-causing microorganisms and of cells in patients.
step is to mass-produce the sensors", states Salvador Alegret, the director
of research. "Mass production will allow costs to be reduced and the product
to become as widely available as pregnancy test kits we can buy at the local pharmacy".
genosensors vs DNA chips
DNA chains has become increasingly important in biochemistry, medicine and biotechnology.
But traditional DNA-analysis techniques are becoming outdated as demand increases
for more genetic information to be found in less time and at a lower cost. An
important step forward in this direction was the creation of DNA chips, in which
the UAB played a leading role in Catalonia. Hundreds, or even thousands, of genetic
tests can be performed simultaneously with these chips, which are now a vital
part of any large-scale project, such as unlocking the genetic code of an organism.
DNA chips are limited to a certain extent because of some very specific analytical
problems, such as establishing the source of microbial contamination quickly and
efficiently. The new miniaturised electrochemical genosensors meet the current
need for DNA to be analysed at a low cost with easy-to-use devices that do not
need to be supervised by highly trained scientists.
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Mexico And United States Release Harmonized North American BSE Strategy
Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting
Statement by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the USDA
Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption
To Test Thousands Of Cattle For TB
Kan. - Kansas animal health authorities will begin testing 84,000 dairy cattle
for tuberculosis Monday after animals from infected herds in New Mexico and Arizona
were traced to dairies in southwest Kansas, the state's top veterinarian said
Friday.Kevin Varner, chief veterinarian in charge of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
in Kansas, said no TB cases in cattle have been found in Kansas, but several dairies
received animals from places where infected cows have been found - a dairy in
New Mexico and a heifer-raising facility in Arizona. It is not known yet if any
of the animals brought to Kansas had TB.
"It is a human health threat
and an economic problem for the industry," Varner said. "We have pushed
the disease almost to extinction, but we still have it at this time."
can catch tuberculosis by drinking raw milk from infected cows, he said. Also
at risk are people who milk cows or work around infected animals, he said. If
an animal is found with TB lesions at slaughter plants, that carcass is condemned
and removed from the human food chain.
April 1, 2005
LOS ANGELES -- David
Ian Dickinson, 43, who pleaded guilty last year to trying to extort $180,000 from
a supermarket chain by threatening to put poisoned baby food on store shelves,
was sentenced Friday to five years in federal prison.
Dickinson was cited as
saying he was under "extreme duress" when he made the threat to Ralph's
supermarket chain a year ago and that he wanted money to pay for his ailing 5-month-old
son's college education.
Judge Dean Pregerson called Dickinson's crime "a
villainous act, a close cousin to terrorism."
meat: Food safety help or hindrance?
- Winter/Spring 2005 - Vol 9 No.2/3
we equate washing with cleanliness. Why, then is one of the recommendations in
the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans that consumers not wash meat and poultry
before cooking? The reason lies in minimizing the spread of bacteria. Bacteria
present on the surface of meat or poultry are easily destroyed by cooking, but
bacteria spread to other surfaces and foods during the washing process may not
receive the needed heat treatment.
According to USDA's Meat and Poultry hotline,
bacteria from the rinsed meat is easily spread to the sink, faucet, your hands,
dish clothes, and anything you touch or that comes in contact with the raw meat.
Further contamination may occur if other food items such as fresh vegetables or
fruits are then placed in the sink. While the bacteria on the meat will be destroyed
during cooking, that on the salad ingredients will likely be served to the dinner
The USDA also does not recommend washing eggs before storing or using
them. Washing is a routine part of commercial egg processing and eggs do not need
to be washed again. Fresh laid eggs have a natural coating called "bloom,"
which helps prevent bacteria from permeating the shell. Although removed by washing,
egg processors restore this protection with a light coating of edible mineral
oil. At home, extra handling of eggs, such as washing, could increase the risk
of cross contamination, especially if the shell becomes cracked.
vegetables do need to be thoroughly washed before eating, especially if served
without further cooking. An information sheet by the Food Safety Inspection Service
(FSIS) taking aim to educate consumers about these misconceptions can be viewed
team up to prevent food-borne illnesses
By BRANDON MCCOY / Aggie
Source of Article: http://www.californiaaggie.com/
some may be wary of food poisoning and are cautious of devouring their favorite
foods, UC Davis researchers are looking for ways to increase food safety.
76 million cases of food poisoning occurring annually in the United States, food
safety concerns are important but often overlooked by many consumers.Various UCD
researchers, along with other food experts from around the nation, are collaborating
on further scientific research to help prevent food-borne illnesses from entering
the food supply and to respond to food-poisoning outbreaks.Led by North Carolina
State University, the newly formed Food Safety Research and Response Network is
composed of 50 researchers from 18 colleges and universities across the nation,
including UCD. The network is funded by a $5 million grant from the U.S. Department
The food-safety network is a long-term endeavor aimed at promoting
awareness of food safety, as well as leveraging funding for future research.UC
Berkeley is the only other California university to join the new food-safety network,
which also includes institutions such as Cornell University, University of Montreal
and Tuskegee University.
TOKYO (Kyodo) -- Naoko Iwanami, a researcher at
the Japanese National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, was cited as saying
Thursday she has identified two substances that prevent the production of an abnormal
protein believed to cause mad cow disease and its human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
The substances -- sodium copper chlorophyllin and sodium iron chlorophyllin
-- are chemical compounds that are close in composition to chlorophyll and are
considered safe for consumption as they are already used as food additives and
Source of Article: http://www.meatnews.com/
orders a Louisiana chicken-processing facility closed after months of food safety
USDA ordered the shutdown of a House of
Raeford chicken-processing plant in Arcadia, Louisiana, after the company failed
to respond to numerous sanitation and environmental violations, according to a
Shreveport Louisiana Times newspaper article. The violations were documented over
a 10-month period.
been allowed to operate while they worked on these violations,¡± Matt Baun, a spokesman
for USDA¡¯s Food Safety Inspection Service. ¡°But some of the concerns became so
large we had to shut down the operation. There was a food safety risk, so we needed
to take action.¡± It's uncertain when the plant, which employs 700, will resume
USDA issued a 15-page letter to plant manager Larry Anders detailed
specific problems, such as a lack of employee hygiene, improper product-handling
practices, repetitive facility and equipment contamination, roof and pipe leaks
and related condensation, and the lack of food safety plans -- all of which could
result in bacteria contamination of products.
Baun said the risk of contamination
of products produced at the plant and already in commerce is low. ¡°It's just the
conditions under which the products were being produced in the plant led us to
believe food safety would be compromised,¡± he explained.
Web posted: March
Tahini Warning Issued
Mar 31, 2005 11:31 am US/Central
of Article: http://wcco.com/
St. Paul (AP) Regulators said consumers should
avoid eating "Ziyad" brand plain tahini after routine testing by the
Minnesota Department of Agriculture found the sesame seed paste tainted with potentially
dangerous salmonella bacteria. The Agriculture Department issued the warning for
the Middle Eastern food found in specialty stores and some major grocery store
chains. On Thursday, the department was investigating how widely the product was
distributed. The tainted sample did not have a code date or production code, so
the department said it considers all uncoded products to be potentially contaminated.
The department said the product is sold in glass jars and labeled "Tahini"
in green letters on a yellow background. The product was distributed by Ziyad
Brothers Importing of Cicero, Ill.
Nemer Ziyad, a co-owner, said the company
has asked all of its retailers to pull the product off their shelves as a precaution.
He said the company has been in business for 39 years. "We've never had this
happen," he said.
Ziyad said his company packages the imported paste
and recent testing of the company's facilities and warehouse have found nothing
wrong. He added the company had recently begun putting batch codes on its tahini.
Agriculture officials said no illnesses have been reported in connection with
the tahini, but the Minnesota Health Department is monitoring the situation. People
infected with salmonella tend to develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps
between 12 and 72 hours after infection. Most people recover after a few days
Researchers use semen to fight campylobacter
by Ann Bagel on 3/31/05 for Meatingplace.com
antibiotics to turkey semen may help prevent the growth of campylobacter bacteria,
according to research at the University of Arkansas.
campylobacter is commonly found in poultry intestinal tracts, a research team
led by Dan Donoghue of the university's Division of Agriculture recently discovered
that the bacteria also occur naturally in turkeys' male and female reproductive
tracts. The problem is that artificial insemination practices at turkey farms
could expand the pathogen's prevalence.
collection by nature of the tom's anatomy is predisposed to fecal contamination,"
Donoghue said. In addition, semen on commercial turkey farms is pooled before
being used to inseminate hens, making it possible that contaminated semen could
spread through entire flocks.
and his team are considering the possibility of using antibiotics in semen extenders
to fight campylobacter and other bacteria. "We're hoping to find one that
is already being used that will be effective against foodborne pathogens,"
option may be cooling the semen to reduce or eliminate campylobacter. The trick,
however, is to cool the semen enough to hurt the pathogens without damaging the
are looking at different approaches and trying to eliminate that segment of the
contamination or reduce it," Donoghue said.
research project is being sponsored by the Food Safety Consortium, a coalition
of the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University.