Sanitation and Verification
and Sanitation of Processing Equipment
Training Program for All Employees
source from cornell.edu/
Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), O157 and Non-O157
source from wisc.edu
of Food Protection
Journal of Food Safety
A Preliminary Study of Kashar Cheese and Its Organoleptic Qualities
Matured in Bee Wax
Effect of Coating and Wrapping materials on the shelf life of
apple (Malus domestica cv.Borkh)
Prevalence of bacteria in the muscle of shrimp in processing
submit your research note or articles for Internet Journal of Food Safety, click
Processors who need specific tranings
food processors need
supplemental food safety training.
Also, there are
many food safety
educators. FoodHACCP is trying to
other Sudan crisis
American Council on Science and Health (ACSH)
Elizabeth M. Whelan,
This article originally appeared on
Although the media coverage here in the
United States has been non-existent, much of the world has been experiencing one
of the great food scares -- and food recalls -- of modern times.
of this latest food scare (described by the Economist as "the biggest food
scare since the last one") has been England, where over 400 products have
been recalled because of a "cancer risk." The purported culprit: a red
dye dubbed Sudan 1, approved for use in polishes, waxes and solvents -- but not
in food (here, it is banned from the food supply by the Food and Drug Administration).
alleged problem began when a very large batch of chili powder somehow was contaminated
with Sudan 1 and then was used widely in the preparation of Worcester sauce, which,
in turn, was used in over 400 prepared food products -- everything from shepherd's
pie to salad dressing.
The scare and recall was not limited to Great Britain.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency issued a "health hazard alert" for
various chili sauces, and as this article is being written, the Sudan scare is
heating up bigtime in South Korea and China. Indeed, the South Korean FDA has
begun inspecting outlets of fast food restaurants after the Chinese operation
of Kentucky Fried Chicken admitted that it had discovered traces of Sudan 1 in
its cuisine. U.S. manufacturer Heinz reported traces of the dye in its Chinese
products. The threat of a massive region-wide recall is becoming increasingly
What is this spicy kerfuffle all about? The same old, same old.
high dose, Sudan 1 causes cancer in rodents. Of course, as critics have pointed
out, you would have to consume 800 liters of Worcester sauce every day for two
years to get the amounts the rodents consumed (that is a lot of Bloody Marys).
But if you believe a mouse is a little man, then you see a risk, even if the level
of exposure is at a barely measurable level.
What is of great interest here
is the fact that the British government -- specifically the UK Food Standards
Agency -- seems to have orchestrated this scare/scam in a very self-serving, manipulative
manner. Instead of telling the British people that the risk was purely hypothetical
(myriad chemicals, natural and synthetic, cause cancer at high doses in rodents),
the FSA appeared to hype the risk -- recommending that consumers "avoid eating
any food known to be contaminated." Critics maintain that the Agency's zeal
and excessive precautionary warnings represent a PR move to convince consumers
that their government food watchdog agency was indeed doing their job -- and watching
over their flock of nervous eaters. Similarly in Canada, the Food Inspection Agency
was alarmist, warning consumers "not to consume the certain food products
[which] contain a non-permitted color, Sudan 1, which is considered to be carcinogenic."
batten down the hatches. The scariest food scare since the last one has already
crossed the big pond and is looming over North America. Soon it could be playing
on a grocery shelf near you.
Dr. Elizabeth M. Whelan is president of the American
Council on Science and Health, HealthFactsAndFears.com).
traceability will provide safety from 'farm to fork'
April 15, 2005
Sylvain Charlebois, an assistant professor of marketing at the
Faculty of Business Administration of the University of Regina, writes in this
opinion piece that the discovery of the first native case of bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) in 2003 took almost four months, from the time the ailing
animal in Alberta was slaughtered on Jan. 30, 2003, until the actual BSE test
was done on May 16.
Charlebois sayss this incident proved that Canada lacks
efficient tools to trace food products. BSE is in no way a new disease -- it was
predictable, and there were forewarnings that it could occur. The time has come
to adopt an audacious new, progressive strategy to protect the beef industry,
and other agricultural supply chains for that matter.
The notion of shared
responsibility through the food supply chain can in no way be evaded. We have
to accept that the BSE ordeal is part of a process in which conditions will always
force us to enhance food safety systems already in place. The agrifood industry
is as responsible for food safety as the government, and it must take appropriate
control of the situation.
Charlebois says that countries like France, Belgium,
and Ireland are benefiting from a food traceability system, also known as the
"farm to fork" concept. Food traceability offers the ability to trace
and track the origins of any product throughout the food supply chain, at any
For instance, in Ireland, where the government and a major retailer,
Superquinn, came together in a joint project called the Irish Retail Food Safety
Standard, retailers were able to reduce inconsistencies with suppliers and increase
transparency between in-store operations. Using a DNA-based tracking system, all
levels of the organization were involved and trained in a meticulous, team-oriented
In Canada, there is definitely room for improvement. Charlebois
says our food distributors and retailers are notoriously known to defy the "farm
to fork" model, declaring that they already have an in-house system that
was implemented years ago.
However, in implementing a more universal traceability
program, one would have to consider that food retailing is one of the most competitive
industries in our global economy, as it must manage disproportionate operational
overhead costs, low profit margins, and a demand that is relatively elastic for
The agrifood industry in Canada must equip itself, and transform
itself, in order to anticipate future crises. Food traceability represents, for
crises such as the BSE situation, a profitable and useful measure. By no means
will it bullet-proof the industry from such problems in the future, but it will
permit it to anticipate the occurrence of this type of crisis and adopt a proactive
attitude throughout the food supply chain, adding value to Canadian commodities
in the process.
It will also ensure more rapid containment of food catastrophes
that could potentially harm the health of consumers who depend on the knowledge,
the expertise and the vigilance of all of those who contribute to the Canadian
food supply chain.
Charlebois goes on to say that Can-Trace, a Canadian alliance
formed in July, 2003, is a collaborative and open initiative committed to the
development of traceability standards for all food products grown, manufactured
and sold in Canada. This group is, thus far, showing promising results with its
work. However, the ideal framework for a food traceability system in Canada has
not yet been found, perhaps because it is not yet being actively pursued on a
large scale by the major stakeholders.
too clean could be hazardous to your health and the environment
Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Researchers at Virginia Tech have discovered that the use of antimicrobial
soaps and other products may unnecessarily be directly exposing consumers to significant
quantities of chloroform. Peter Vikesland, assistant professor in civil and environmental
engineering, has shown in his research that when the chemical triclosan, present
in many antimicrobial soaps, reacts with chlorine in tap water, chloroform is
produced. Chloroform is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
as a probable human carcinogen.
Vikesland¡¯s work was reported in last week¡¯s
on-line edition of Environmental Science & Technology¡¯s science news section
Triclosan is a synthetic antimicrobial agent, which is classified as a Class
III drug by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As the result of its broad-spectrum
bacteria-fighting ability, it has found increasingly popular use in personal care
products, cosmetics, antimicrobial creams, acne treatments, lotions, hand soaps,
and dish soaps. It is also used as an additive to plastics, polymers, textile,
and implantable medical devices. Triclosan is most often used to kill bacteria
on the skin and other surfaces and is sometimes used to preserve a product, including
The American Medical Association (AMA) has been urging the FDA to closely
monitor and possibly regulate the home use of antimicrobials such as triclosan.
The increasing popularity of antimicrobial products has preceded the study of
the possible harmful affects of the use of such products.
Past research has
shown that chloroform is produced when free chlorine reacts with organic material.
¡°This is the first work that we know of that suggests that consumer products,
such as antimicrobial soap, can produce significant quantities of chloroform,¡±
said Vikesland. The implications of these reactions to consumers are not known.
¡°There are numerous potential exposure pathways that can be envisioned, such as
inhalation and skin exposure, when using antimicrobial soaps to wash dishes or
when taking a shower. There is also risk of exposure when using triclosan laden
moisturizers as they may also react with chlorine in the water,¡± said Vikesland.
and his associates have conducted research closely mimicking conditions found
when washing dishes in the home. The results show that it is possible that the
chloroform produced when the antimicrobial soap containing triclosan mixes with
chlorinated water could be absorbed through your skin or inhaled. Vikesland¡¯s
research is funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation
(AWWARF) and by a National Science Foundation (NSF) graduate research fellowship
to Krista Rule, the lead student on the project.
Most of the consumer products
that contain triclosan eventually end up being discharged down residential drains.
It has previously been shown by researchers from the University of Minnesota that
the photochemical reactions of triclosan could be producing dioxins in the presence
of sunlight. Dioxins do not degrade over time and they can accumulate in body
tissues to cause a greater effect. Even low levels of dioxin are a problem because
of their tendency to accumulate along the food chain.
Vikesland is an NSF CAREER
Awardee for 2004-2009. He was an Invited Participant at the National Academy of
Engineering Frontiers of Engineering Symposium in 2003. Vikesland was also named
an American Society of Civil Engineering Excellence in Civil Engineering Education
(ExCEEd) Fellow in 2002. He received his bachelor¡¯s degree in chemistry from Grinnell
College in 1993. He received his master¡¯s and Ph.D. from the University of Iowa
in civil and environmental engineering in 1995 and 1998, respectively. His research
areas of interest include environmental nanotechnology, subsurface contaminant
remediation, and drinking water treatment.
Ontario warns on unpasteurised milk after fourth E. coli case
Source of Article: http://www.just-food.com/
chief medical officer of health Dr Sheela Basrur, Ontario¡¯s has warned against
drinking unpasteurised milk after a fourth case of E. coli O157 was found in the
province.The first three cases were reported in Barrie earlier this week, the
Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care said. The fourth case involves a
seven-year-old child from Toronto. The child was treated in hospital and is now
recovering at home. Toronto Public Health is also investigating the sibling of
the seven year-old for possible E. coli infection. All individuals under investigation
drank unpasteurised milk distributed in Barrie. It is illegal to sell, offer to
sell, deliver or distribute unpasteurised milk, the ministry said.
unpasteurised milk is dangerous for everyone. Parents need to be particularly
aware that giving this milk to children can result in very serious illness and
can lead to death,¡± Dr Basrur said. ¡°Anyone with nausea, fever, vomiting or diarrhoea
who consumed unpasteurised milk should contact their doctor immediately.¡±Dr. Basrur
also urged members of the public to report sales of unpasteurised milk
promises quick and cost-effective food analysis
Source of Article:
- Culture media supplier Oxoid has expanded the use of innovative chromogenic
substrates within its chromogenic media range to provide quick and cost-effective
claims the firm, have the potential to reduce or even eliminate the need for further
Chromogenic technology detects specific enzyme activity
in target organisms quickly and accurately. These enzymes cleave a colourless
substrate in the medium, releasing colour molecules within the colonies of interest
and allowing them to be clearly seen, differentiated and counted.
safety can increasingly make or break the fortunes of a company. In industrialised
countries, the percentage of people suffering from foodborne diseases each year
has been reported to be up to 30 per cent. And in the US, for example, around
76 million cases of foodborne diseases, resulting in 325,000 hospitalisations
and 5,000 deaths, are estimated to occur each year.
food industry therefore increasingly needs cost-effective analytical methods that
are safe, accurate and minimise waste to develop methods to screen, detect, and
confirm multiple chemical residues and harmful bacteria, including their toxins,
extensive selection of Oxoid Chromogenic Media available to the food industry
includes Oxoid Chromogenic Bacillus cereus Agar for the selective isolation and
differentiation of Bacillus cereus.
addition, there is Oxoid Chromogenic E. coli/coliform Agar and Oxoid Selective
E. coli/coliform Agar for the detection and differentiation of E. coli from other
coliforms. Oxoid Chromogenic Enterobacter sakazakii Agar can be used for the enumeration
of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk and other foods and differentiation from
Chromogenic Salmonella Medium can be used for the identification of Salmonella
species and selective differentiation from other Enterobacteriaceae, while Oxoid
Chromogenic Listeria Agar can improve the isolation, enumeration and presumptive
identification of Listeria species and differentiation of pathogenic Listeria
monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from other Listeria species.
was announced earlier this year Oxoid will be acquired by Fisher Scientific International.
Oxoid was first acquired by PPM Ventures in 2000 following a secondary buyout
from Cinven, but definitive agreements were reached in February for US-based Fisher
Scientific International to acquire the UK diagnostic firm for ¡Ì177.5 million
Scientific is a $3.6 billion manufacturer and distributor of products to the scientific
research, clinical laboratory and safety markets which is listed on the New York
Stock Exchange. The company¡¯s 10,000 employees located in approximately 145 countries.
holds Research Summit on food defense
of Article: http://www.ift.org
April 3-5, IFT's fourth Research Summit brought together world-renowned scientists
to identify the means by which to address the issue of food defense. Summit participants
addressed actions needed to advance the understanding of how to determine what
has happened and what agent was involved in the event, the appropriate course
of action to protect the public and food workers, and the optimum approach to
managing the recovery process. Some of the presentations have been loaded to IFT
Research Summit page.
Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer of Med
America Research Finds Correlation Between Contaminated Food and Alzheimer¡¯s
April 15, 2005
Source of Article:
Could Mad Cow, Cruetzfeld-Jakob, and Alzheimer¡¯s Diseases
all be caused by the consumption of meat and/or dairy products? This may very
well be the case according to Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer. While an abundance of research
seems to indicate that this is a strong possibility, Congress and the mainstream
medical research community are ignoring the evidence. Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer asserts
that it¡¯s high time the U.S. government demanded further research.
York, NY (PRWEB) April 14, 2005 -- The notion that Alzheimer¡¯s, Creutzelf-Jakob,
and Mad Cow Disease may be caused by the consumption of meat and dairy products
has, up to now, been pretty much dismissed by the medical research community but
an article written by Lawrence Broxmeyer, M.D. of Med-America Research, is beginning
to turn heads. ¡°The possibility of the age-related reemergence of food borne Mycobacterium
bovis (bovine tuberculosis) as a vector for Creutzfeldt?Jakob Disease (CJD or
human Mad Cow Disease) and Mad Cow disease itself is very real,¡± Broxmeyer asserts.
¡°Thinking the Unthinkable: Alzheimer¡¯s, Creutzfeldt?Jakob and Mad Cow disease
- the age-related re-emergence of virulent, food borne, bovine tuberculosis, or
losing your mind for the sake of a shake or burger¡± is a well documented research
study that is just now getting the attention it deserves partly as a result of
a report by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). .
Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported last May of an outbreak of CJD linked
to the consumption of meat contaminated ¡°with the agent causing¡± bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) at a New Jersey racetrack between the time frame 1995-2004.
In the opinion of experts, ample justification now exists for considering a similar
pathogenesis for Alzheimer¡¯s, Creutzfeldt?Jakob and the other spongiform encephalopathies
such as Mad Cow disease. In fact, Creutzfeldt?Jakob and Alzheimer¡¯s often coexist
and at this point are thought to differ merely by time-dependent physical changes.
A recent study links up to 13% of all ¡°Alzheimer¡¯s¡± victims as really having Creutzfeldt?Jakob
to Broxmeyer, Bovine tuberculosis, which includes Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium-intracellulare
or paratuberculosis, is and has always been the most prevalent threat to the cattle
industry, and the USDA reports that between 20% and 40% of US dairy herds are
infected with paratuberculosis alone.
health risk for milk tainted with M. bovis has been known for decades and there
was a time not so long ago when ¡®tuberculin-tested¡¯ was printed on every milk
container. ¡°Schliesser stated that meat from tuberculous animals may also constitute
a significant risk of infection. At the turn of the 20th century 25% of the many
US deaths from TB in adults were caused by M. bovis,¡± Broxmeyer goes on to say.
products aside, current research shows that when past and present meat consumption
are factored in, there is three times the risk of developing Alzheimer¡¯s in meat
eaters as opposed to vegetarians. The investigation into the causal trail for
Creutzfeldt?Jakob, indistinguishable from Alzheimer¡¯s except for its shorter,
lethal course might have grown cold where it not for Roel¡¯s and others who linked
mad cow in cattle with M. bovis and related paratuberculosis on clinical, pathologic
and epidemiological grounds. The southwest of the UK, the very cradle of British
BSE and CJD outbreaks, saw an exponential increase in bovine tuberculosis just
prior to its spongiform outbreaks,¡± Broxmeyer went on to say.
of this brings up the unthinkable: that Alzheimer¡¯s, Cruetzfeldt?Jackob, and Mad
Cow Disease might just be caused by eating the meat or dairy in consumer products
or feed. ¡°It is only appropriate therefore to explore the role of bovine TB and
the atypical mycobacteria in Alzheimer¡¯s, JCD and Mad Cow disease and develop
better serological surveillance for these pathogens,¡±Lawrence Broxmeyer says.
Broxmeyer believes it¡¯s time Congress take a proactive interest in additional
research. ¡°In the interest of public health, it¡¯s high time our Congressional
leaders take an interest in funding additional research.¡±
Lawrence Broxmeyer, an internist researcher, is currently working in conjunction
with several large laboratory research centers in San Francisco and Nebraska is
working on a novel technique to kill mycobacteria presently offering resistance
to known antibiotics by a novel technique using the bacteriophage. He subsequently
appeared as lead researcher in the Oct 2002 issue of Journal of Infectious Diseases
in a paper revolving around this research. He has also written two books published
by New Century Press: ¡°AIDS: What the Discoverers of HIV Never Admitted¡± and ¡°Parkinson¡¯s:
Is Parkinson¡¯s Disease Caused by Bacteria?¡± Additional information about Lawrence
Broxmeyer and his on-going research can be found at http://medamericaresearch.org.
Dr. Broxmeyer can also be contacted by phone at (718) 746-5793.
Lawrence Broxmeyer, Lawrence Broxmeyer, M.D., Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer
may increase Salmonella infections
April 13, 2005
A group at the NIZO Food Research in The Netherlands has followed up on their
research concering how fructooligosaccharides decrease the resistance of the gut
to Salmonella infections in rats. This seems to be because the saccharides cause
an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier, allowing easier translocation
of Salmonella to extraintestinal sites. For more information, see Journal of Nutrition
2005, 135 (4): 837-842.
source sought in Campbell County Hepatitis outbreak
Health officials are investigating
the source of a Hepatitis A outbreak in Campbell County.Seven recent cases of
the virus have been confirmed so far and another three are suspected.None of the
people infected are related to one another or appear to even know one another.
However, most are residents of the LaFollette area.The victims are experiencing
nausea, jaundice, vomiting and darkening of the urine. Officials in Campbell County
are asking residents to be alert for these symptoms.The health department is looking
for a common source of infection, most likely food-borne. The possiblities include
restaurants, church events, and exposure to raw sewage.None of those infected
is critically ill, but there is no specific treatment for the disease.
plastic may not be safe; Bisphenol A used in food containers
The Toronto Star
Researchers at the University
of Missouri were cited as saying there is overwhelming evidence that a chemical
used in the plastic to make containers is making its way into the water and food
and causing harm.
Bisphenol A, or BPA, is the main chemical compound used
to make the hard clear plastic known as polycarbonate, one of the world's most
widely used industrial materials. Some 2.7 billion kilograms of it is produced
annually, and it's used in a range of products, from CDs, helmets and computers
to eyeglass lenses, food containers and the popular Nalgene water bottles.
recent years, the scientific community has debated whether BPA is harmless or
poses a danger to humans.
In a report published online today in Environmental
Health Perspectives, researchers funded by the U.S. National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences found that, of 115 studies on BPA over the past two years, 94
showed it caused serious harmful effects in lab animals by disrupting hormones
vital to reproductive development.
Co-author Frederick vom Saal, a reproductive
biologist andco-author of the report, was quoted as saying, "This chemical
is so potent and we must be just constantly exposed to it because it metabolizes
Plastic industry officials yesterday disputed the findings,
saying other studies have concluded BPA is not a risk to humans and that the small
traces leaching into food or water meet regulatory safety thresholds.
Cooper, a senior researcher at the Canadian Environmental Law Association, was
cited as saying she's convinced there is enough evidence to warrant a re-evaluation
of bisphenol A, particularly in light of the potential harm to babies and pregnant
women, adding,"There's a big question mark hanging over a chemical that we're
all regularly exposed to. And children so often are the most seriously affected."
announces three workshops at IAFP 2005
April 8, 2005
Association for Food Protection (IAFP) Press Release
Moines, Iowa - The International Association for Food Protection announces three
workshops to be held in conjunction with IAFP 2005 at the Baltimore Marriott Waterfront
Hotel in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshops are scheduled for August 12-13, 2005.
Certificate for Asia Countries
To get USA Haccp
certificate from Asia, it is very difficult to travel to USA. Now, we are opening
HACCP conference in Guam for Asia countries. Only two days training. and get USA-certificate.
The conferenceplace will be Hyatt Guam Hotel (Nov. 14-15, 2005). more
milk leads to third case of E. coli
April 12, 2005
A1 / Front
A probable third case of E. coli O157 infection linked
to unpasteurized milk is, according to this story, being investigated by the Simcoe
Muskoka District Health Unit.
Two local residents were hospitalized last week
with bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps compatible with E. coli infection.
In those cases, one has been confirmed positive for E. coli O157 infection
by the provincial laboratory. The preliminary results of the E. coli O157 infection
in the second and third cases are still pending confirmation.
The health unit
has been informed the families received the milk from an individual who routinely
distributes it from a vehicle parked in the south end of Barrie.
Source of Article: http://www.mariettatimes.com
likely no mom in the whole region who knows more about food allergies than Angie
Lang, of Lowell. Three of her four children have been tested and diagnosed with
a food allergy. "It's changed our lives," Lang said. "You read
every label, that's for sure." So far, each of the Langs' three older children
- aged 9, 7, and 6 - have tested positive for a food allergy and each has such
severe reaction he or she is required to carry epinephrine (adrenaline) in an
EpiPen, in case of anaphylactic shock.Peanuts, walnuts, pecans, fish, shrimp,
crab, eggs, cow's milk all are on the Lang family's hit list. Strict avoidance
of the allergy-causing food is the only way to prevent a reaction."If plain
M&Ms are processed in the same equipment as peanut M&Ms (during manufacturing)
and my son eats a plain ... he will still have a reaction," Lang said. "He
is extremely sensitive."More than 3 million children in the United States
have allergies to foods, according to the Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network,
and the numbers are increasing. Symptoms and reactions are just as individual
as the foods themselves, and the goal of the group is to educate parents and children
about the concern.
test passes the test: New E. coli detection method provides better results, fewer
April 15, 2005
A new detection method for E. coli-tainted foods has outstripped several of
its competitors in effectiveness, says a University of Guelph researcher.
Joseph Odumeru, Laboratory Services Division, has completed a year-long study
evaluating a new method that rapidly tests for the presence of E. coli O157:H7
bacteria - the most common E. coli strain related to food-borne illness in North
America - and he's found the technique detected E. coli O157:H7 100 per cent of
the time in foods without false negative results.
Not only that, the test differentiates
between non-toxic and toxic E. coli 94 per cent of the time, generating fewer
false positives and enabling food safety personnel to work more quickly in recalling
"The results were significant," says Odumeru.
"That means fewer false positives and faster recall times for contaminated
Odumeru compared the effectiveness of this new bacterial detection
kit, called Immunocard STAT! 0157:H7, to three other commercially available kits
that food safety technicians use to detect low levels of E. coli 0157:H7 in food
samples. In particular, he looked at how well each kit performed when probing
food products that have been implicated in past E. coli 0157:H7 outbreaks, such
as ground beef, unpasteurized apple cider, alfalfa sprouts and cheese.
food samples being tested contained the deadly bacteria, Immunocard STAT! 0157:H7
found it 100 per cent of the time. The kit also generated fewer false positive
test results than the other kits. Odumeru says false positives are a common error
in many detection kits, and force scientists to retest food samples numerous times
to ensure food safety. That's expensive and takes up valuable time - and in food
safety, wasted time can mean more food-borne illness cases.
Regular and consistent
testing ensures high quality food that's safe for the general public to consume.
There will always be a need for better methods for detecting food-borne pathogens
and toxins, says Odumeru, and this new method will save time and money in the
long run because fewer tests will have to be performed to deliver accurate information.
role as scientists is to develop better methods to detect bacteria and their toxins
in common foods," says Odumeru. "We want to assist the Ontario food
industry in being able to show that local foods are safe by testing with the best
Next, Odumeru will determine Immunocard STAT! O157:H7's
effectiveness in detecting E. coli O157:H7 in drinking water.
was sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.