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food defense acronyms list
Source of Article: http://www.ift.org/news_bin/news/news_home.shtml
4/03/2006-The U.S. FDA has posted a list of food defense acronyms, abbreviations
and definitions at
Good to see, IFT, Institute of Food Technologists made the list.
New FDA Investigations
Operations Manual Available
Source of Article: http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/458458/n
SPRINGFIELD, Va., April 5 /PRNewswire/
-- The Food and Drug Administration is a public health agency with law
enforcement responsibilities. It regulates products to maximize consumer
protection. The Investigations Operations Manual (IOM) is the primary
source regarding FDA policy and procedures for field investigators and
inspectors. Types of products regulated include foods, drugs, cosmetics,
biological products, medical devices, and electronic products that emit
radiation. The FDA also addresses critical public health problems arising
from use of FDA-regulated products. The new edition of the FDA Investigations
Operations Manual is now available from the National Technical Information
Single Cooking Temperature for Poultry
April 05, 2006
Source of Article: http://www.meatami.com/
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has made available consumer
guidelines for cooking raw poultry to eliminate pathogens and viruses.
Cooking raw poultry to an internal temperature of 165 F is based on recommendations
by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods
According to FSIS, scientific research indicates that foodborne pathogens
and viruses are destroyed when poultry is cooked to an internal temperature
of 165 F. FSIS will use recommendations from NACMCF for additional consumer
guidance to ensure microbiological safety.
to allow raw milk sales defeated
April 5, 2006
NASHVILLE, Tenn. -- A bill that would have allowed raw, unpasteurized
milk sales in Tennessee was, according to this story, bottled up in a
House committee on Tuesday.
Opponents were concerned that without pasteurization, raw milk has a potential
to be laced with listeria, E. coli or salmonella, but bill sponsor Rep.
Glen Casada was cited as saying consumers run the risk of contracting
illnesses from any food, adding, "That's just the nature of food,"
the College Grove Republican said. "I contend it's a consumers right
to buy food they think is healthy for them and their family."
The story says that the House Agriculture Committee defeated the bill
7-5 after hearing objections from Department of Agriculture general counsel
Patricia Clark and state epidemiologist Dr. Allen Craig, who was quoted
as saying, "Other states that allow raw milk sales have had problems.
An unknowing population could make very bad choices."
Casada was further quoted as saying, "It's just interesting that
we allow unhealthy habits like smoking, but we don't allow for the sales
of raw milk, which is healthy."
Sushi - the
By DR DANNY PENMAN, Daily Mail
11:14am 4th April 2006
Source of Article:
Millions think it's the ultimate health fast food - but sushi is tainted
by harmful chemicals and packed full of calories, fat and salt...
The shaven-headed 'sushi master' bends over a choice cut of raw tuna.
His head cocks slightly to one side as he sizes up the moist, firm flesh.
After a moment's meditation, he slices up the tuna into a dozen bite-size
morsels with a series of swift knife strokes. The slivers of fish are
then laid lovingly atop small mounds of fragrant Oriental rice smeared
with hot wasabi sauce. Simple, clean and fresh, sushi is the epitome of
21st century eating. Delicate fish, rich in essential oils, and nori seaweed
loaded with minerals, are helping sushi to become the definitive lunch
option for health conscious 20 and 30-something Britons.
Such is sushi's growth in popularity
that it's now outselling the traditional BLT sandwich in many places.
It is fast becoming a national staple alongside ploughman's, pizza and
curry. But as the young and upwardly mobile tuck in, they would undoubtedly
be horrified to learn what lies behind the neat little packets of rice
and fish, wrapped in seaweed.
withdraws proposed acrylamide warning rules
By Lorraine Heller
Source of Article: http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/news/ng.asp?n=66819-acrylamide-warning-label-carcinogen
4/3/2006 - California has withdrawn proposed rules that would have required
food manufacturers to place acrylamide warning labels on certain products.
The proposals, announced in April 2005, attracted ¡°voluminous comments,¡±
which could not all be reviewed within the one-year time frame allowed
by law, and which resulted in the withdrawal. However, California's Office
of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) said it intends to submit
new proposed regulations within the next 60 days.
Indeed, the issue has already
resulted in significant tension between the industry and consumer groups.
The state's voter-approved warning-label law, Proposition 65, requires
that manufacturers alert customers about the existence of cancer-causing
compounds in food. But the inclusion of acrylamide, a carcinogen that
is created when starchy foods are baked, roasted, fried or toasted, on
labels is fiercely opposed by the food industry, despite claims that there
is a legal obligation on food firms to inform customers of all possible
dangers. ¡°There is enormous pressure from the food industry on the regulatory
authorities to exempt cooked foods from this new law,¡± Mike Schmitz of
the California League for Environmental Enforcement Now had told FoodNavigator-USA.com
last year. more
Outbreaks, What to Do and How to Cope
Source of Article: http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/
Sunday, 2 April 2006
There are some things in life that you do not get a practice run at. Large
food poisoning outbreaks caused by bacteria such as salmonella, are just
one of those scenarios where you need to hit the deck running. So how
can you prepare yourself for this situation?
Learning from other people's experience is a key factor in developing
strategies to deal with large outbreaks. With this in mind, environmental
health officers, health protection agency personnel, solicitors and private
company representatives, attended a seminar on salmonella food poisoning
outbreaks organised by the Royal Institute of Public Heath in October
2005, to share experiences.
The day was jointly chaired by David Clapham and Dr Rosalind Stanwell-Smith,
beginning with an informative session on controlling the import of foods
contaminated with salmonella, by Sandra Westacott, team leader, Southampton
port health authority (PHA). Southampton is one of the UK's largest imported
food PHA's and uses a range of strategies to minimise the risks of introducing
disease to the UK. These include identifying consignments of food which
do not match the documentation, sampling consignments to confirm/ dispute
the 'health certificate' claims about the microbiological status, and
routinely sampling ready to eat products of animal origin for salmonella.
When the Southampton PHA recieved cooked and peeled prawns, dog chews,
and spices over a number of years because of salmonella contamination;
the trade moved to other parts with less stringent sampling or rejection
policies. In 2003, the spice trade returned and the level of rejections
due to salmonella dropped significantly suggesting that manufacturers
had improved their production methods. Overall there is a low level of
rejection of food consignments due to contamination with salmonella, but
continual monitoring of imported foods is a vital tool for minimising
the risks from food that could result in large food poisoning outbreaks.
is your favorite local restaurant?
April 2, 2006
Santa Cruz Sentinel (Calif.)
According to this story, because of sloppy record keeping and security
concerns after 9/11, the county's environmental health department might
have a hard time cracking down on food safety infractions.
The story says that the agency, which is charged with monitoring restaurants
and ensuring diner safety, has admittedly kept incomplete records for
years, and not tracked the county's worst performers ? making it difficult
to punish those who let cockroaches crawl in the croutons or raw chicken
juice drip into the salad mix.
It is not possible to know how many people suffer food poisoning in Santa
Cruz County as many don't report it to health officials. But one kitchen
mistake can infect diners with vicious and sometimes fatal diseases, like
E. coli, botulism or Salmonella.
A survey of health department records shows that kitchen descriptions
jotted on inspection forms are often illegible.
Jerry Lemoine, the program manager overseeing restaurant inspections,
was cited as saying that when he began the job in December, inspectors
told him there was no need to mark violation boxes showing an employee
had cuts or rashes, hot water was unavailable and the problem was severe.
As a result, numerous issues have gone unrecorded. And until a few weeks
ago, no computer database existed to track which restaurants had recurring
Robert Smith, another program manager with environmental health, was cited
as saying that part of the problem dates to 2001. Then, the agency was
prepared to post copies of inspection reports online, letting diners,
watchdog groups and curious reporters call up their favorite restaurants
and learn if rats ruled the kitchen or cooks stashed turkey in too-warm
to be trained to cope with student allergies to nuts
April 2, 2006
The Sydney-Morning Herald
Principals and teachers will be trained to deal with students' severe
peanut allergies at compulsory sessions starting next month.
The State Government-run allergic response training, beginning in term
two, will show teachers what to do if a student suffers a potentially
lethal allergic reaction, known as anaphylactic shock, to peanuts or other
Principals will attend a three-hour training session before passing on
the guidelines to their staff.
Schools will also have access to nurse educators who can provide more
The introduction of the awareness sessions, developed in conjunction with
the NSW Department of Health, follows recommendations from the state coroner
after a student died from anaphylactic shock in 2002 after eating peanut
While most people allergic to nuts typically encounter mild symptoms such
as hives, a small proportion will go into anaphylactic shock, experiencing
worrying symptoms such as breathing problems. The most common form of
instant treatment is to use an EpiPen, a type of syringe containing adrenaline.
Schools are advised by the Department of Education to discourage students
from sharing lunches and to post an emergency response plan in the canteen
area, as well as organising lunches to be eaten in a supervised area and
replacing foods such as peanut butter with other canteen items.
Many NSW school canteens have prepared posters displaying photos of students
with allergies, their names and details of items they are not allowed
to consume or come into contact with.
A document sent to schools from the Department of Education earlier this
year advises principals of the potential severity of the allergic reactions.
variant) Update 2006 (04)
April 4, 2006
A ProMED-mail post
[The definition of the designations deaths, definite cases, probable vCJD
cases, and, the case definitions can be found by accessing the Department
of Health web-site, or, by reference to a previous ProMED-mail post in
this thread (for example, CJD (new var.) - UK: update March 2002 20020305.3693).
Data on vCJD cases from other parts of the world are now included in these
updates whenever available.
Also, data on other forms of CJD (sporadic, iatrogenic, familial and GSS)
are now included when they have some relevance to the incidence and etiology
of vCJD. - Mod.CP]
In this update:
 UK: Department of Health monthly CJD statistics, Mon 3 Apr 2006
 Japan: Update on first Japanese case
 Japan: Proposal for amendment of case description
 UK: Risk assessment
on five cruise ships suffer stomach sickness in March
April 3, 2006
South Florida Sun-Sentinel
Five cruises were hit by outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in March,
the largest monthly tally in more than a year.
The outbreaks occurred on the Grandeur of the Seas (Royal Caribbean International);
Amsterdam (Holland America Line) and Island Princess (Princess Cruises).
The Celebrity Cruises ship Mercury reported outbreaks on successive cruises
(March 6-17 and March 17-27) from San Diego.
Analysts at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified
noroviruses as the cause of the outbreaks on Grandeur, Island Princess
and the first Mercury voyage. Results from tests on the other two cruises
Noroviruses, which also occur on land, are not fatal but lead to 48 to
72 hours of diarrhea and vomiting.
vomiting reported at Guilford Child Care Centers
March 30, 2006
GREENSBORO, N.C. -- The Guilford County Department of Public Health was
cited as confirming an increased number of diarrhea illnesses in county
child-care centers over the past several weeks.
Officials were cited as saying that symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting and
fever among children and center workers have occurred in 25 child-care
centers, and some child-care classrooms have experienced multiple incidents
Six documented cases of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus have been recorded
with six children requiring hospitalization. Two documented cases of laboratory-confirmed
salmonella have also been recorded, according to officials. A number of
unconfirmed cases of rotavirus have been noted.
Food Safety Authority has now cleared Gilde ground beef of any connection
to the recent outbreak of a virulent strain of the E. coli bacteria.
05 Apr 2006
Source of Article: http://www.aftenposten.no/english/local/article1269413.ece
Gilde, Norway's dominant meat cooperative, believes the declaration should
have come three weeks ago.
The report compiled by the FSA in cooperation with the Norwegian Institute
of Public Health and the National Veterinary Institute concluded Wednesday
that Gilde ground beef, long the primary suspect in connection with an
E. coli outbreak that claimed the life of one child, was not to blame.
"It is completely unlikely that Gilde's ground beef and the production
at Rudsh©ªgda have had anything to do with the E. coli outbreak. Eating
ground beef from Gilde is as free from danger now as it has been previously,"
said FSA supervisory director Kristina Landsverk at a press conference.
The FSA apologized to Gilde for the economic impact of the situation.
We believe it would have been more honest, based on the facts in the case,
for the FSA to have dropped the ground beef line of investigation about
three weeks ago," said Gilde communications director Nina Sundqvist.
After the FSA named a series of Morr type cured sausage as the carrier
of the virulent E. coli 0:103 bacteria on March 22, a certain level of
suspicion had been maintained towards Gilde ground beef. "As long
as the authorities did not manage to communicate clearly and unequivocally
that ground beef is safe to eat our workers were under a great strain,"
The Consumer Council agreed
that the FSA had been intolerably ambiguous in communicating with consumers.
After being labeled a likely source of the bacterial outbreak Gilde's
ground beef sales have fallen 30 percent.
04/03. Dagoba Organic Chocolate Recalls Dark Chocolate Products Because
of High Lead Levels
03/30. Nestle Country Creamery Ice Cream May Contain Egg Not Identified
On The Label
03/29. Ardmona recalls raspberry conserve
03/29. Salmonella in halva
03/29. Anthony-Thomas Candy Company Issues Allergy Alert on Undeclared
Egg Whites in Filled Easter Eggs
03/27. EMPIRE¡¯S CHOICE GRILLED EEL may contain Nitrofurans and Malachite
03/27. North Country Spring Water, Ltd. Recalls Entire Production of Bottled
Water Products Due to Potential Health Concerns
03/24. Texas Firm Recalls Dried Beef for Possible Listeria monocytogenes
and/or Salmonella Contamination
03/24. Undeclared soy in EL PETO PRODUCTS brand TAPIOCA STARCH AND FLOUR
03/23. Seven Seas Ltd product withdrawal update
03/23. Lantic recalls sugar for metallic strands
find new way to battle listeria in plant floor drains
April 4, 2006
In an attempt to fight fire with fire, scientists at the University of
Georgia have discovered bacteria that kill listeria in processing plant
floor drains, where they are known to multiply in the wet environment.
The scientists took biofilm samples from poultry, dairy and infant food
processing plants. They found nine different bacteria from biofilms that
were highly effective in killing listeria and ultimately chose two to
The researchers first tested the two strains in a fresh poultry processing
plant, using a foaming agent to apply the bacteria to drains. "The
foam adheres to the drain's surface and gives the bacteria an opportunity
to attach and grow in their new environment," said Michael Doyle,
director of the UGA Center for Food Safety in Griffin, Ga.
The drains were monitored for more than three months, and the foam/biofilm
mixture eliminated listeria in most drains to undetectable numbers for
several weeks. The researchers also tested the mixture in a ready-to-eat
deli meat processing plant, and after eight weeks, five of six treated
drains were free of detectable listeria.
UGA has licensed the technology to a supplier, and the product should
be commercially available pending regulatory review and approval.
kit delivers results in under a day, company claims
By Ahmed ElAmin
Source of Article: http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/
31/03/2006 - A new testing kit for Salmonella promises to deliver results
in less than a day.
Salmonella is one of the food industry's most problematic food-poisoning
bacteria. In 2004 the most frequently reported zoonotic diseases in humans
were salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, with the most deadly being
listerious, according to a European Commission report. Eggs, poultry meat
and pork are the major sources of human Salmonella infections.
UK-based Biotrace International claims its Tecra Unique Salmonella test
provides a simple and rapid method to detect Salmonella spp. in food and
environmental samples in less than 22 hours. The kit contains all the
reagents needed for the testing in ready-to-use, self-contained modules,
with the positive and negative controls are built-in. This makes the kit
useful for running a single test or for testing multiple samples. Unlike
many other rapid Salmonella tests, Unique Salmonella can be run manually.
It can be fully automated using Biotrace's Unique Pplus instrument. "There
is only one simple enrichment step, saving on media and autoclaving costs,"
Biotrace stated. The kit can also be used with Biotrace's Quick-Enrich
MBPW, a 225mL of sterile modified buffered peptone water pre-dispensed
in a stand-up bag. The food sample can be added o the bag, mixed and allowed
The Salmonella test is part or Biotrace range of expanding kits. The company
has kits for testing for Listeria, Campylobacter and Staphylococcal Enterotoxins.
European consumers have become increasing concerned about food safety,
mainly due to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) scare in cattle
beginning in the late 1980s, a foot and mouth disease outbreak in 2001
and of avian flu in 2003 and this year. Consumer concerns have in turn
led to tougher regulatory action and increased surveillance of safety
in food processing plants.
There were 192,703 reported
cases of salmonellosis and 183,961 of campylobacteriosis cases reported
during 2004 in the EU, according to a European Commission report. The
incidence of salmonellosis represent 42.2 cases per 100,000 population,
which represents an increase of 22 per cent when compared with 2003, indicating
the higher levels encountered in the new states.
explore pathogen killing methods without heat
By Ahmed ElAmin
Source of Article: http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/
03/04/2006 - Scientists are studying the effectiveness of new methods
-- such as ozone and electrolyzed oxidizing water -- to kill pathogens
in the plant without using thermal processes, which can lower the quality
of food products.
There are good reasons for coming up with new processing technologies
to increase food safety. A more effective sanitizing process without chemicals
or harmful heat is attractive to processors, along with the possibility
of lower costs.
Ali Demirci, an associate professor of agricultural and biological engineering
at Pennsylvania State University, is investigating the use of ozone, supercritical
carbon dioxide, electrolyzed oxidizing water and pulsed UV-light to decontaminate
foods and ensure products are safe. Other emerging technologies include
irradiation, high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field and ohmic
" Employing nonthermal ways to destroy pathogens allows us to decontaminate
food without damaging the products," he stated in describing his
All of the methods he is testing seem promising as a way for processors
to combat food-borne pathogens.
"However, more research is needed to find the best application for
each technology, as well as optimising the process for a specific application,"
he stated. "We hope the efforts will pay off by reducing outbreaks
due to consumption of minimally processed foods."
Ozone has been proven to be
a more effective antimicrobial than the most commonly used disinfectant,
chlorine, against a wide range of microorganisms, Demirci stated. It has
been used safely in water treatment plants for decades. In 2001, the FDA
approved using ozone to treat raw commodities and decontaminate minimally
processed fruits and vegetables. In Europe and Japan, ozone is used to
increase shelf life of foods such as meats, f ruits and cheeses. "Ozone
has certain characteristics that make it attractive for use as a sanitiser
in food processing," Demirci stated. "It is a strong antimicrobial
agent with high reactivity and spontaneous decomposition to a nontoxic
product -- oxygen." Ozone decays quickly in water, thus, its use
may be considered as a process rather than a food additive, with no safety
concerns about consumption of residual ozone in food products, he says.
Ozone has been used with varied success to inactivate microflora on meat,
poultry, eggs, fish, fruits, vegetables and dry fruits.
In the laboratory, Demirci and his fellow researchers have used ozone
to decontaminate alfalfa seeds and sprouts as well as small fruits, such
as strawberries. For seeds treated with ozone, a 92 per cent reduction
in pathogens was achieved using a two-minute contact time, and a better
than 99 per cent reduction was achieved with a 64-minute contact time
with aqueous ozone.
For strawberries, a 99.9 percent reduction was obtained using pressured
gaseous ozone after 64 minutes of contact time.
Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water is another novel disinfecting and cleaning
agent. The method uses electrolysis of a very dilute saltwater solution
in an electrolysis chamber. The generation of EO water involves subjecting
the saltwater to direct current voltage, creating two types of water possessing
One is a dilute sodium hydroxide solution (alkaline EO water), the other
a mild hypochlorous acid solution (acidic EO water). The antimicrobial
activity of acidic EO water appears to be due to the combination of high
oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and the presence of chlorine and
low pH, Demirci stated.
Alkaline EO water can be used as cleaning agent to remove soils.
"EO water has demonstrated strong bactericidal properties,"
stated Demirci. "Our studies also suggest that EO water can be used
instead of expensive cleaning and sanitizing products for clean-in-place
cleaning of certain food-processing systems, such as dairies."
As a pathogen killer, pulsed
ultraviolet light also has a lot of potential. Ultraviolet light, an electromagnetic
radiation in the spectral region,
possesses germicidal properties, according to Demirci. It deactivates
the DNA of microorganisms and thus destroys their ability to multiply
and cause disease. "Ultraviolet technology is a nonchemical approach
to disinfection," he stated. "In this method, nothing is added,
which makes this process simple, inexpensive and very low-maintenance."
The key to making this technology affordable is that the ultraviolet light
is pulsed. Many researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of UV-light
for reduction of microbial loads on food surfaces by inactivating the
bacterial components and DNA of microorganisms without adversely affecting
of the food, he stated. Such studies involve continuous UV-light applications.
The conventional systems produce continuous UV-light with a power dissipation
in the range of 100 to 1,000 watts. "Generating these high-intensity,
energy-density levels with continuous UV-light can be costly to the user,
which demands that systems be designed for the maximum conversion and
collection efficiency of UV radiation," he stated. "However,
pulsed UV systems can dissipate many megawatts of electrical power in
the light source. Therefore, a modest energy input can yield high peak
power dissipation." The pulsed light flashes are created by compressing
electrical energy into short pulses and using these pulses to energize
an inert gas lamp. The lamp emits an intense flash of light for a duration
of a few hundred microseconds.
Because the lamp can be flashed
many times per second, only few flashes are required to produce a high
level of microbial kill.
The team evaluated pulsed UV technology for decontamination of alfalfa
seeds, corn meal, fish, honey, milk and water.
Penn State got its experimental system through a NASA grant.
NASA gave Penn State a food grant to fund part of of the study because
the scientists are experimenting with a dry system of decontamination
that doesn't require chemicals or water. This would be a useful process
on a space station or shuttle because it requires only electricity.
Documenting that these novel technologies are effective in killing pathogens
in a controlled setting is just part of the challenge, Demirci stated.
"In the laboratory environment over the last six years, we have proved
that they work," he says. "But now, we have to figure out how
to make them work on the production line. It is a huge challenge to boost
these technologies' ability to kill pathogens to near 100 per cent at
production line speeds and transfer the technology to the commercial arena."
The equipment to accomplish
these novel technologies is all commercially available to food-processing
companies, but manufacturers don't know what to do with them, Demirci
stated. "We are focused right now on trying to determine what we
need to do to make these cutting-edge concepts work commercially to reduce
food-borne illness," he stated. Infectious diseases are increasing
throughout the world. Even though food production and storage systems
are advanced, and strictly regulated in the US and Europe, millions of
cases of intestinal infectious diseases occur annually. Therefore, food
processors have increased their efforts to minimise foodborne infectious
diseases significantly in the last decade, pushed by laws.
About 76 million cases of intestinal infectious diseases occur annually
in the US.
Foodborne pathogens, including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria
monocytogenes, cause serious outbreaks in this country and all over the
world due to consumption of contaminated meat, poultry, eggs, milk, fruits
Regarding Benzene Levels in Soft Drinks
Mr. Richard Wiles
Senior Vice President
Environmental Working Group
1436 U Street, NW, Suite 100
Washington, DC 20009
Dear Mr. Wiles:
This is in
response to your letter of February 28, 2006, to Andrew von Eschenbach,
MD, Acting Commissioner of Food and Drugs, asking the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) to issue a warning to the public that soft drinks containing ascorbic
acid and benzoate preservatives may contain benzene and to release the
results of our tests for the presence of benzene in soft drinks. Your
letter was forwarded to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
(CFSAN) for a response.
In your letter,
you contend that FDA has known about the presence of benzene in soft drinks
since 1990, suppressed the information from the public, and asked soft
drink manufacturers to voluntarily solve the problem. You describe the
finding of benzene in soft drinks as a "clear health threat."
You have not provided any rationale why the presence of benzene in soft
drinks at low parts per billion (ppb) levels should have been considered
as a clear health threat at that time or should be considered as such
a threat now; both FDA and the Health Protection Branch (HPB) in Canada
agreed then, as they agree now that low ppb levels of benzene found in
these products did not and do not constitute an imminent health hazard.
FDA was informed by the soft drink industry that benzene, a carcinogen,
could form at the ppb level in some beverages that contained benzoate
preservatives and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). After learning that benzene
was present in some products, research was undertaken by both FDA and
industry to understand the factors that contributed to benzene formation.
We learned that elevated temperature and light can stimulate benzene formation
in the presence of benzoate salts and vitamin C, while sugar and EDTA
salts inhibit benzene formation. Contrary to your statement that FDA suppressed
information, FDA published its findings in 1993. These findings showed
both that benzene was detected only at insignificant levels and that trace
levels of benzene could occasionally be detected in foods that did not
contain added benzoates and vitamin C.1 Earlier, in 1992, HPB published
its findings of a survey in which they sampled fruit, fruit juices, fruit
drinks, and soft drinks with and without added benzoate.2 Results of HPB's
survey were consistent with our findings.
2005, FDA received private laboratory results reporting low levels of
benzene in a small number of soft drinks that contain benzoate preservatives
and ascorbic acid. As follow-up to these findings, FDA began collecting
and analyzing a small sample of beverages with a focus on those products
that contain both benzoate and ascorbic acid.
Based on currently
available results from this limited survey. the vast majority of beverages
sampled (including those containing both benzoate preservative and ascorbic
acid) contain either no detectable benzene or levels below the 5 ppb limit
for drinking water, and do not suggest a safety concern.
includes a list of beverage products that were purchased in retail outlets
and that contain ascorbic acid and benzoates. You cite this list as evidence
that the beverage industry has not eliminated the chemical combination
that can form benzene. You should know, however, that the presence of
benzoates and vitamin C in a product cannot be used to conclude that elevated
levels of benzene have or will form. In fact, in our current analyses,
the vast majority of beverages containing both benzoate preservative and
ascorbic acid contained either no detectable benzene or levels below 5
FDA is continuing
to sample beverages to gain more representative data on the current situation.
We intend to release our results when we have a more complete understanding
of the current marketplace. Although the results to date are preliminary,
they do not suggest a safety concern. Additionally, the agency has been
in contact with manufacturers and industry trade associations. They have
informed FDA that they are actively assessing whether their products contain
benzene and will take appropriate steps to minimize benzene formation
in their products, if elevated levels are found.
FDA is also
following up with companies whose samples of products were found to contain
elevated levels of benzene in our initial survey. Once FDA has completed
its beverage survey we will determine what, if any, additional action
is necessary to protect the public health and to ensure that the levels
of benzene in soft drinks marketed in the future are as low as possible.
We appreciate your concern regarding this issue.
Robert E. Brackett,
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
deploys Novazone's Cold Storage Solution to lead market in high quality
April 3, 2006
From a press release
LIVERMORE, Calif.--Novazone, a leading provider of innovative ozone-based
solutions to improve the freshness and safety of food and water, today
announced that WilsonBatiz, a grower-shipper of greenhouse and open field
fruits and vegetables, has deployed Novazone's ozone-based cold storage
solution to control the spread of decay causing mold spores such as Botrytis
and Penicillium and as an extra safeguard against other microorganisms
including E. coli and Listeria. Using Novazone's cold storage solution,
WilsonBatiz will extend its ability to enhance food safety, reduce decay
and deliver high quality tomatoes and peppers to buyers around the world.
WilsonBatiz, comprised of three generations of two families, is a leading
grower-shipper of high quality greenhouse and open field fruits and vegetables.
With the deployment of Novazone's ozone-based cold storage solution, WilsonBatiz
will be able to effectively kill and control the spread of most common
food-borne microorganisms in its cold storage rooms located in San Diego,
California. With Novazone's cold storage application, ozone gas is delivered
consistently and at precise concentrations into the storage rooms, killing
and controlling the spread of mold, bacteria and viruses in the air and
on exposed surfaces. In this environment, ozone is also effective in naturally
controlling the ripening process by converting ethylene into carbon dioxide
and water vapor. Regulating the ripening process in this manner ensures
longer storage and shelf life, delivering the highest quality product
"Peppers are extremely sensitive to ethylene and with Novazone's
ozone-based solution, we'll experience less spoilage and have the ability
to deliver fresher and safer produce to our customers," said Rudy
Batiz, owner of WilsonBatiz. "Novazone's cold storage solution is
extremely reliable and easy to deploy, operate and maintain."
"Ozone, which is USDA approved and the safest and most effective
disinfectant agent for fresh produce, effectively kills mold spores and
microorganisms without the potentially toxic byproducts of traditional
chemicals," said Paul White, president and CEO of Novazone, Inc.
"It is a pleasure to work with a company as progressive and environmentally
conscious as WilsonBatiz. Our science-based ozone solutions reduce food
safety concerns, allowing WilsonBatiz to deliver safer, higher quality
produce to its buyers while protecting consumers and the environment from
potentially harmful chemicals."
Journal of Food Safety (Current Issue)
Vol 8. 23-29
Development of Process for Preparation of Pure & Blended Kinnow Wine
without Debittering Kinnow Mandarin Juice
Vol 8. 19-23
Aspergillus, Health Implication & Recommendations for Public Health
Vol 8. 14-18
An Observational Study of The Awareness of Food Safety Practices in Households
Vol 8. 7-13
Antibacterial activity of oregano tea and a commercial oregano water against
Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes 4b, Staphylococcus aureus
and Yersinia enterocolitica 03.
Vol 8. 3-6
Safety and quality practices in closed-house poultry production in Thailand:
2004-avian influenza outbreak
Vol 8. 1-2
The introduction of the Japanese Carpet Shell in coastal lagoon systems
of the Algarve (south Portugal):
a food safety concern
Protection of Food from Adulterants/Proper Labeling, Storage- VIDEO
Dr. Lori Pivarnik
University of Rhode Island
Click here for Windows Media Streaming Versions
Prevention of Cross-Contamination
Dr. Thomas Rippen
Seafood Technology Specialist with the Maryland Sea Grant Program
the University of Maryland Eastern Shore
Click here for Windows Media Streaming Versions (Recommended)
or click here for HTTP Server
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