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5/15
2006
ISSUE:210

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FSIS Wants Ingredient Controls in HACCP Systems
May 09, 2006
Source of Article: http://www.meatami.com/
In a May 8, 2006 Federal Register notice, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) informed establishments that prepare meat and poultry products they need to ensure and maintain proper control over the use of ingredients, especially those that present a potential public health concern, and over the ingredient labeling of their products. The notice states that establishments should guarantee that their systems provide such control as part of the next HACCP system reassessment.
FSIS is seeking comment on the notice. Comments must be received by July 7, 2006. To read the entire document, click here

Woman wins $3 million in listeria suit
MARYCLAIRE DALE
Associated Press
PHILADELPHIA - A woman who gave birth prematurely to a child with disabilities was awarded a combined $3 million from two poultry companies tied to a deadly 2002 listeria outbreak, court records unsealed Thursday show. Defendant J.L. Foods also settled a wrongful-death case this week involving a 98-year-old doctor who became ill from the bacteria and died a few months later. Several other cases remain pending in Pennsylvania and New Jersey over the outbreak, which killed eight people, sickened more than 50, and led to one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. history. The listeria strain discovered in the victims was found by federal investigators in meat processed at a now-closed J.L. Foods plant in Camden, N.J., and in a plant of Pilgrim's Pride subsidiary Wampler Foods - but not in the meat itself - in Franconia, Pa.
J.L. Foods' settlement this week with the family of Frank Niemtzow - a retired family physician from Freehold, N.J., who delivered rock star Bruce Springsteen - was not disclosed. The family had said his related medical bills were $350,000.
The settlement was reached after opening statements got under way in federal court in Philadelphia on Wednesday. Shakandra Hampton of Chester, Pa., reached a $1.75 million settlement with J.L. Foods and a $1.25 million settlement with Pilgrim's Pride, court documents show. Most of the money will go toward the care of her son, who was born premature in August 2002, at the height of the outbreak.
Hampton - who early on told the Centers for Disease Control that she craved deli turkey during her pregnancy and ate it several times a week - became ill and went into labor about a month early. Her son was born deaf in one ear and also has developmental delays.
"He's a happy, healthy child who struggles cognitively, and we're hoping he eventually catches up to the rest of the population," said lawyer Brandon Swartz, who represented the family.
A federal judge approved a 25 percent award for his firm plus costs, for a total of about $715,000.
Niemtzow's estate and two other families also reached confidential settlements with Pilgrim's Pride.
Cases still pending in Union County, N.J., include the family of an 81-year-old man who died and a woman who became ill, lost her unborn twins and can no longer bear children, plaintiffs lawyer Fred Pritzker said.
Listeria hits hardest among the elderly, pregnant women and those with compromised immune systems, lawyers involved in the suit said.
U.S. District Judge Timothy Savage ruled this month that the plaintiffs did not have to prove which plant produced the meat they ate, because of the linked listeria strains and because people do not always know what brand of deli meat they are buying.

USDA lowers temp for poultry
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, which for decades had recommended that poultry be cooked to an internal temperature of 180 degrees for safe eating, has re-evaluated that assessment. This month, the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service established 165 degrees as the single safe minimum internal temperature to kill food-borne pathogens and viruses in poultry. "This is terrific news," said grilling expert and cookbook author Cheryl Jamison, when informed of the change. "We can enjoy chicken again without ending up with dried-out white meat." Jamison and her husband (and co-author) Bill have long advised temperatures of 165 to 170 degrees. -- Washington Post

Poultry firms step up precautions
SECURITY, TESTING LEVELS BOOSTED TO `CODE YELLOW'
By Greg Bluestein
Associated Press
CUMMING, Ga. - Going to the Milford family chicken farm is like trying to infiltrate a high-security medical lab. After the car's wheels are sprayed down with disinfectant, visitors are outfitted with blue biohazard suits, clear boot coveralls, tight latex gloves and lunch-lady hair nets. Then, before entering the chicken coop, guests must immerse their feet in a soupy but powerful iodine cleanser. Like other poultry farmers across the country, the Milfords are taking extreme precautions to prevent their livelihood from getting infected with the deadly avian flu virus, which has devastated chicken markets in Europe, Asia and Africa but has yet to be detected in the Western Hemisphere. As chicken producers for Tyson Foods, they are required by the company to ban non-essential visitors from the farm and test selected chickens before they're sent to the slaughter -- one of 15,000 tests the company conducts each week for bird flu, which is five times the number of tests it did last year. The tightened visitor restrictions and increased testing are the company's ``code yellow'' precautions, which have been in place for about three months as the virus spreads throughout the world. In California, where poultry farmers were hit hard in 2003 by exotic Newcastle disease, another highly contagious illness that resulted in more than 3 million birds being euthanized, vigilance is also high. That outbreak is regarded as the single largest U.S. health emergency involving commercial poultry in the past 30 years, and the response -- which involved 7,000 people from 10 state and federal agencies -- is being studied for lessons that can be applied if avian flu arrives in the United States. Last year, 100,000 birds from California's poultry farms were tested for the disease, and the rate this year is expected to far outpace that.

Health officials worry that the virus could potentially spark a pandemic if it mutates into a new strain that could be easily transmitted among people. If the avian flu strain ever reaches the United States, chicken growers are confident it probably won't reach their isolated chickens, let alone humans. They, however, probably will have to handle widespread fear from consumers. And the staggering U.S. industry, which produces more than 35 billion pounds of poultry a year, is why farmers in Georgia, the nation's leading poultry producing state, and elsewhere are taking extreme precautions. If news from abroad is any indicator, their fears are well placed. France's poultry industry, Europe's largest, reported losing $48 million in monthly sales as countries scale back their chicken imports. In Italy, consumer fears of the virus have forced the industry to lay off some 30,000 workers. Fear of a bird flu backlash has major producers such as Tyson Foods and Gold Kist, and family farmers alike ramping up their efforts to keep consumers at ease.

Poultry growers are quick to point out that none of the 205 cases of avian flu confirmed by the World Health Organization resulted from eating poultry -- although one case in Vietnam was contracted after a victim drank raw duck's blood. Of those cases, 113 people have died. They add that cooking poultry at normal temperatures would kill H5N1, the deadly strain of avian flu that's spread across Asia to Europe and Africa. Just for good measure, KFC plans on tacking red, white and blue stickers that say ``rigorously inspected, thoroughly cooked, quality assured'' on the lid of every bucket of fried chicken it sells in the United States. Neither Atlanta-based Chick-fil-A nor Oak Brook, Ill.-based McDonald's has plans to add food-safety messages to the packaging of their chicken products. Most chicken producers, including Little Rock, Ark.-based Tyson and Atlanta-based Gold Kist, favor an ``all in, all out'' process that rids coops of all chickens before each new group is brought in to ensure any disease can't be carried over. ``We're lucky. The way our industry is set up is with enclosed housing,'' said Wayne Lord, a Gold Kist vice president. ``Our commercial poultry are all housed inside chicken houses so the chance for encounter with wild birds is extremely remote. It's very insulated and very strictly monitored.'' To the Milfords, who have been in the chicken business for generations, the precautions are a sign of the times.

``Years ago, I don't remember Papa having signs on the door saying: `Restricted -- No Admittance,' '' said Troy Milford, who runs the farm with the help of his father, Dempsey. ``But everyone is more aware now.'' Another sign of the times: As he walks around his 13-acre plot, which houses four coops that grow 78,000 chicks at a time, Milford can check his cell phone for messages and e-mail alerts from the company with bird flu news. The tight controls needed to protect chickens from disease come naturally to modern chicken coops, Milford said. At his coops, shutters automatically clamp down after cooling fans cut off and sensitive sensors connect to a computer to regulate the building's temperature. Entering one of them is like entering a dark wind tunnel, tinged with the stench of 20,000 clucking 5-week-old chicks. It's a far cry from the days when the family first entered the chicken business in the 1930s, when Dempsey's grandmother bought 80 acres in the north Georgia foothills. Since then, plots have been handed down from generation to generation as the region has emerged as one of the nation's leading poultry centers. Nearby Gainesville, just across the county line, calls itself the ``Poultry Capital of the World'' and Cumming boasts dozens of poultry farms, including three run by Dempsey's siblings around the corner for a road named after the family. While avian flu might lead to a host of new restrictions, it's just the latest challenge the industry must mount, said Dempsey, an ever-smiling 66-year-old in blue overalls. ``You wouldn't have thought about it till 10 years ago,'' Dempsey said. ``It's a good thing, though. When you go to all the grocery stores, you don't worry.''

CANADA PROVIDES CASH FOR FOOD SAFETY
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CANADA: A new C$2.64 million food-safety initiative is launched in British Columbia.
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Canada¡¯s new government is to provide British Columbia with $2.64 million for a Food Safety Initiative (FSI) to enhance and promote food-safety systems in its food processing industry. The FSI is part of the Agricultural Policy Framework, a federal-provincial-territorial strategy for long-term sustainability and profitability in the agriculture and agri-food sector.

¡°We are proud to be working with the government of British Columbia on this initiative to make this important contribution to the province's food processing industry,¡± said Canada¡¯s Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food and Minister for the Canadian Wheat Board Chuck Strahl. ¡°Enhanced food-safety systems help protect the health of Canadians.¡±

The focus of the Food Safety Initiative is to work with the non-federally registered food processing industry to raise awareness of food-safety issues and help producers meet food safety standards.

Outreach activities will be delivered by the Food Protection Services of the British Columbia Center for Disease Control in partnership with the regional health authorities, the food processing industry and the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands.

British Columbia¡¯s food and beverage processing sector generated $6.15 billion in sales in 2004, of which $1.9 billion was exported. The processing sector, dominated by a large number of small and medium-sized firms, employs 31,000 people.

¡°This initiative will be particularly helpful for small-scale producers who are working to meet new food safety regulations,¡± said British Columbia Agriculture and Lands Minister Pat Bell. ¡°Together with industry, we want to ensure the highest level of food safety in our province on everything from meat to baked goods. Food-safety standards provide even greater consumer confidence in British Columbia food products.¡±

FDA: Safe Handling of Raw Produce and Fresh-Squeezed Fruit and Vegetable Juices

USDA downplays seriousness of mad cow disease found in Alabama
Mad cow disease was recently confirmed in a cow in Alabama, according to two tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Even so, the USDA seems just as reluctant as usual to admit that U.S. herds continue to be infected with mad cow disease. Even though the results of this second test have been announced, there is a whole lot of spin from the USDA on trying to suppress the severity of this news -- so let me translate it into plain English for you.
First, this positive result is from the second test conducted on this particular cow in Alabama. The first test also produced a positive result, but it was a less precise test -- one that's faster and less expensive to conduct. When the first test produced a positive result, the USDA declared it to be "inconclusive" -- that's USDA doublespeak for the word "positive." They call it inconclusive because they don't want to use the word "positive" anywhere near mad cow disease. But you'll notice that the USDA never proclaims a negative result on this initial low-cost screening to be inconclusive -- it's simply called "negative" and it doesn't bother with any other testing. In other words, this testing system is frighteningly unscientific. If the first test is so inaccurate as to be considered inconclusive by the USDA, then how does it know that a negative result on the first test is sound?
Perhaps a negative result is also inconclusive and this test is completely useless. On the other hand, if the test is useful -- that is, if it is accurate enough to be able to declare a cow free of mad cow disease -- then why is it called inconclusive when a cow tests positive?
The answer, of course, has nothing to do with science but everything to do with food politics and USDA efforts to protect the U.S. beef industry. In fact, many of the top people who work at the USDA used to be key executives, public relations people or marketing people working for various meat industry groups in the United States. It's no surprise that they would want to protect the industry they are supposed to be regulating.


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Cadbury Schweppes to face lawsuit over ¡®all natural¡¯ 7UP
15/05/2006 - Just a month after the reformulation of its flagship Seven Up drink, Cadbury Schweppes is set to face a lawsuit that accuses the firm of deceptively advertising the product as ¡®natural¡¯. The suit is to be filed by public pressure group Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), which claims the re-branding is misleading as the drink contains high fructose corn syrup.

Last month, Cadbury Schweppes reformulated Seven Up to contain only five ¡®100 percent natural' ingredients: filtered carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, natural citric acid, natural flavors and natural potassium citrate. Television adverts for the product claim it ¡°tastes better than ever because we stripped out all the artificial stuff,¡± and show cans of the drink being picked from fruit trees or harvested from the ground. But the continued presence of high fructose corn syrup has brought the firm under attack. ¡°Pretending that soda made with high fructose corn syrup is ¡®all natural,' is just plain old deception,¡± said CSPI executive director Michael Jacobson. The problem lies in the fact that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not provide a definition of the term ¡®natural'. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), which sets out regulations for meat and poultry products, states that products can only carry a ¡®natural' claim if they contain no artificial or synthetic ingredients, and if they are minimally processed. And although the FDA has been petitioned to adopt the USDA's definition of the term, current FDA policy simply states that a food can be considered ¡®natural' if ¡°nothing artificial or synthetic¡± has been added to it that would not normally be expected to be in that food. The US Natural Ingredient Resource Center devised its own definition of natural ingredients last year, after inviting comments from the food industry. It said natural ingredients should be present in or produced by nature, produced using ¡°minimal processing¡± (using methods possible in a household kitchen or on a farm), and ¡°directly extracted¡± using simple methods. ¡°High fructose corn syrup isn't something you could cook up from a bushel of corn in your kitchen, unless you happen to be equipped with centrifuges, hydroclones, ion-exchange columns, and buckets of enzymes,¡± said Jacobson. The suit to be filed by the CSPI will seek to prevent Cadbury Schweppes from describing any product containing high fructose corn syrup as ¡®natural'. The CSPI will also seek restitution, corrective advertising and attorney's fees. In March this year the Sugar Association filed a petition with the FDA requesting the establishment of a clear definition for the use of the term ¡®natural' on food and beverage product labels, claiming that the current lack of a formal definition for the term has resulted in misleading claims and consumer confusion. According to recent studies, "all-natural" is reported as being the most frequent "positive" new product category. In 2004, the National Marketing Institute reported that 63 percent of consumers have a preference for natural foods and beverages. And food sales in natural product stores reached a reported $11.4 billion in 2003.

Another research firm, IRI, said in January this year that 94 per cent of American households had bought a natural product, and predicted the sector would show high single-digit growth over the next five years. And the natural soda market grew by almost 15 per cent between May 2004 and May 2005, according to market research group SPINS. In 1993, the FDA said it had not included a definition of the term in its Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) ¡°because of resource limitations and other agency priorities.¡± However, it did concede that the use of the term on food labels is ¡°of considerable interest to consumers and industry¡± adding that ¡°because of the widespread use of this term, and the evidence that consumers regard many uses of this term as noninformative, the agency would consider establishing a definition.¡±

Study highlights need for Salmonella awareness
15.05.06
A study on human Salmonella brandenburg infection indicates rural communities need to be more aware of infectious diseases spreading from animals to humans. The bacteria causes gastrointestinal illness. It was initially confined in New Zealand to sheep and rural workers associated with animal husbandry. The study by Otago University's John Holmes said rates of Salmonella brandenburg in people had decreased slightly in recent years. But there were increasing rates of infection in people less directly involved in agriculture, Holmes said.

Romania to cull 1mln birds after avian flu outbreak
Special report: Global fight against bird flu
BUCHAREST, May 14 (Xinhua) -- Romania is planning to cull some 1 million domestic fowl after the deadly H5N1 bird flu virus was found in three central locations of the country, Agriculture Minister Gheorghe Flutur said on Sunday.
"Almost 1 million birds will be culled in total in central Romanian regions that have been hit or could be hit by bird flu," Flutur told a press conference.
"The discovery of bird flu on a farm (in the Codlea region) is a first in Romania, since the first case of the disease was detected on Oct. 7, 2005. We will quickly cull the farm's approximately 350,000 chickens, as well as other poultry in contaminated centers," he said.
Earlier in the day, the National Veterinary Health Agency said it had found the H5N1 virus in the central region of Fagaras, as well as on a poultry farm in Codlea.
Romanian authorities already found new cases of the virus, which can be deadly to humans, in the central town of Hurezu on Friday. Meanwhile, Health Minister Eugen Nicolaescu said the drug Tamiflu had been given out to residents in the affected regions to prevent a possible human case of bird flu. Romania closed down its last bird flu quarantine zone in the east of the country on April 20. But the newly detected cases show that the country still has a long way to go in its efforts to ward off the epidemic. The first bird flu case in Romania was detected in the Danube delta last October. Since then, the epidemic had spread to more regions of the country, bringing to 53 the number of restricted quarantine zones.
No cases of human infections have been reported in the country. Enditem

Has Asia eliminated bird flu?
By Kathy Jones
May 14, (foodconsumer.org) - Even as the deadly H5N1 strain of the bird flu virus is devastating flocks in Europe and Africa, the Asian countries such as Vietnam and Thailand, where the disease originated, have remained relatively calm. The deadly march of the avian flu virus had triggered fears of flu p andemic, but these fears have not materialized till now. Dr. David Nabarro, chief pandemic flu coordinator for the United Nations was full of praise for the way Asia has handled a difficult crisis. He singled out Thailand and Vietnam for the way the governments have responded to the crisis. "These are two countries where there has been very strong political leadership, excellent work by government officials, and an intensive engagement of people at community level," he said. "They show that with the right level of engagement, we can reduce the threats posed by bird flu, and I'd like to see the same energy carried through to fruition in other countries as well."
Vietnam where almost 50 percent of the initial cases were reported has not reported a single human case or an outbreak of flu in poultry this year. Thailand, the second-hardest-hit nation has also not seen a human case for over a year and a poultry outbreak for over six months.
These signs are being interpreted very positively in health circles and are a welcome relief to one and all. Another break has been the fact that belying expectations, birds making the spring migration north from Africa have not brought the bird flu virus into Europe. more information

Scientists achieve allergen-free soy breakthrough
Researchers have isolated two Chinese soybean lines that can grow without the primary protein linked to soy allergies in children and adults. The scientists say that the two lines will be given away to breeders seeking to produce new varieties of allergy-free soybeans without genetic engineering. The breakthrough could help food makers tap the growing free-from food market, which is set to double on the back of growing consumer concern over health and well-being.
Market analyst Mintel says that the UK sector, which is being driven by increased public awareness of food allergies and intolerance, has already enjoyed sales growth of over 300 per cent since 2000. In addition, because the newly identified lines occur naturally, they can be successfully crossed into other soybean lines "without any biotechnology-derived component," the researchers noted.
Crop scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the USDA-Agricultural Research Service's Donald Danforth Plant Science Centre in St. Louis screened more than 16,000 soybean lines kept in the USDA's National Soybean Germplasm Collection.
It was discovered that two soybean lines (PI 567476 and PI 603570A) contained virtually identical genetic mutations that do not contain the leading allergy-causing P34 protein, which consists of 379 amino acids. more information

UK Farm Is Given All-clear After Anthrax Outbreak
LONDON (Dow Jones)--A Welsh farm which was under restrictions after two cows died of anthrax has been given the all-clear, the BBC reports on its Web site Friday.
Twenty days after its last anthrax death, restrictions ended at Ynys Gau farm, at Gwaelod-y-Garth, near Cardiff. The public had been banned from going on or near the farm and the movement of animals was halted. Experts have ruled out an external source and believe it is due to a ground source. The farm also tested positive for anthrax 35 years ago.
The herd has been closely monitored and there have been no further cases.
The anthrax was discovered following the sudden deaths of six cows at Ynys Gau farm.
Farmers are required to report the sudden and unexpected death of livestock, and routine testing revealed two of the cows had died of anthrax.
The carcasses of the two animals with anthrax were incinerated on the farm. The other four animals were incinerated elsewhere, with the workers there advised of health and safety procedures. The risk to users of the local river had been described as "negligible," while the danger to walkers and their paths after restrictions were lifted would be "minimal."
BBC News Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk

USDA says 156,235 pounds beef recalled for E. coli
May 8, 2006 ? WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. Department of Agriculture on Friday said that an Oklahoma-based company has voluntarily recalled 156,235 pounds of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli bacteria. The company, Fadler, Southwest Food Distributors, LLC of Tulsa, has voluntarily recalled beef products produced on various dates between February 6 and May 3.
The problem was discovered through routine product testing on beef patty products that were distributed to retail establishments, restaurants and institutions in Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, the USDA said.
E. coli is a potentially deadly bacterium that causes bloody diarrhea and dehydration, leaving the very young, seniors and those with compromised immune systems at the highest risk.

Scientists study nature's toolbox to identify Salmonella
When you hear the word ¡°virus¡± you might think of something that makes you sick.
But scientists have found some good viruses - tiny needle-like structures that can actually make bacteria, such as Salmonella, explode.
Finding these good viruses, called bacteriophages, is important for agriculture. There are many, many implications and applications as scientists find new ways to understand and use phages.
USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and university scientists have collected and identified some beneficial viruses that could help control Salmonella bacteria in swine waste lagoons.
Salmonella can attack the stomach and intestines causing diarrhea or constipation, headaches, cramping, nausea and vomiting, fever or blood in the feces. The young and the elderly can become very sick from eating food that contains Salmonella. Generally when we think of Salmonella, we think of eggs. We shouldn't eat raw eggs because Salmonella could be present. But Salmonella also live in the intestinal tract of animals. Salmonella can cause nasty diseases like typhoid fever as well as food borne illness. Salmonella also produces hydrogen sulfide - one of the stinky and dangerous parts of pig manure. Hydrogen sulfide is produced by the breakdown of many compounds in manure, but the use of the bacteriophages to control Salmonella might someday have significance in odor control. Mike McLaughlin, a virologist at the ARS Waste Management and Forage Research Unit at Mississippi State, is directing a team that has devised methods to collect and identify bacteriophages that attack Salmonella strains. Studying phages is relatively new for McLaughlin. He has traditionally studied viruses of forages. more information

FDA: Green tea doesn't lower heart disease risk
By FDA
May 11, 2006, 00:13
Dear Dr. Tarka:
This letter responds to the health claim petition dated June 9, 2005, submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the agency) by Ito En, Ltd and Ito En (North America), Inc. pursuant to Sections 403(r)(4) and 403(r)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(4) and 343(r)(5)(D)). You are listed in the petition as the person to whom correspondence should be addressed. The petition requested that the agency authorize a qualified health claim characterizing the relationship between the consumption of green tea and a reduction of a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) for use in the labeling of conventional foods and dietary supplements. This petition proposed as a model qualified health claim:
"Daily consumption of at least 5 fluid ounces (150 mL) of green tea as a source of catechins may reduce a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. FDA has determined that the evidence is supportive, but not conclusive, for this claim. (Green tea provides 125 mg catechins per serving when brewed from tea and 125 mg catechins as a pre-prepared beverage)."
FDA filed the petition on July 28, 2005 as a qualified health claim petition and posted the petition on the FDA website for a 60-day comment period, consistent with the agency's guidance on procedures for qualified health claims.[1] The agency did not receive any comments on this petition.
This letter sets out the basis for FDA's determination that there is no credible scientific evidence to support qualified health claims about consumption of green tea or green tea extract and a reduction of a number of risk factors associated with CVD.
I. Overview of Data and Eligibility for a Qualified Health Claim
A health claim characterizes the relationship between a substance and a disease or health-related condition (21 CFR 101.14(a)(1)). The substance must be associated with a disease or health-related condition for which the general U.S. population, or an identified U.S. population subgroup is at risk (21 CFR 101.14(b)(1)). Health claims characterize the relationship between the substance and a reduction in risk of contracting a particular disease.[2] In a review of a qualified health claim, the agency first identifies the substance and disease or health-related condition that is the subject of the proposed claim and the population to which the claim is targeted.[3] FDA considers the data and information provided in the petition, in addition to other written data and information available to the agency, to determine whether the data and information could support a relationship between the substance and the disease or health-related condition.[4] The agency then separates individual reports of human studies from other types of data and information. FDA focuses its review on reports of human intervention and observational studies.[5]
In addition to individual reports of human studies, the agency also considers other types of data and information in its review, such as meta-analyses,[6] review articles,[7] and animal and in vitro studies. These other types of data and information may be useful to assist the agency in understanding the scientific issues about the substance, the disease or health-related condition, or both, but cannot by themselves support a health claim relationship. Reports that discuss a number of different studies, such as meta-analyses and review articles, do not provide sufficient information on the individual studies reviewed for FDA to determine critical elements such as the study population characteristics and the composition of the products used. Similarly, the lack of detailed information on studies summarized in review articles and meta-analyses prevents FDA from determining whether the studies are flawed in critical elements such as design, conduct of studies, and data analysis. FDA must be able to review the critical elements of a study to determine whether any scientific conclusions can be drawn from it. Therefore, FDA uses meta-analyses, review articles, and similar publications[8] to identify reports of additional studies that may be useful to the health claim review and as background about the substance-disease relationship. If additional studies are identified, the agency evaluates them individually. more information

Current Job Information
05/15. Food Safety Specialist (Portland OR)
05/15. Poultry Manufacturing Positions (DE)
05/15. Quality Assurance Manager, Food and Nutritional Mfg (KY)
05/15. Food Safety Specialist - Japanese Cuisine (NY)
05/15. Quality Assurance Director - Food Industry (MI)
05/15. Quality Assurance Manager (IN)
05/15. QA USDA ASSOCIATE (LA, CA)
05/15. Materials Supervisor, GMP, HAACP, Shipping (PA)
05/15. Quality Assurance Supervisor (IL)
05/15. Food Safety Sanitarian - Seattle (WA)
05/15. Production Supervisor (Food Industry) (KS)
05/15. FOOD SERVICE DIRECTOR (VA)
05/15. Water Quality Supervisor (MO)
05/15. QC Manager - Food Ingredient Mfg - Milwaukee, WI