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A shelf where bagged spinach is usually sold is empty at a supermarket in Washington today. souce from Charles Dharapak/Associated Press

FDA Statement on Foodborne E. coli O157:H7 Outbreak in Spinach
Source from:
Update: Tuesday, September 19, 2006
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will continue to provide the public with regular updates on the E. coli O157:H7 outbreak each day until further notice.

Case Reports
To date, 131 cases of illness due to E. coli infection have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), including 20 cases of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), 66 hospitalizations, and one death. Illnesses continue to be reported to CDC. This is considered to be an ongoing investigation.
States Affected
There are 21 confirmed states: California, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Consumer Advice
FDA advises consumers to not eat fresh spinach or products that contain fresh spinach until further notice.
If individuals believe they may have experienced symptoms of illness after consuming fresh spinach or fresh spinach-containing products, FDA recommends that they seek medical advice.
Two (2) Recalls
On 9/17/06, River Ranch, of Salinas, California, announced a voluntary recall of packages of spring mix containing spinach. River Ranch obtained bulk spring mix containing spinach from Natural Selections. The following brands are involved: Fresh N¡¯ Easy Spring Mix and Hy-Vee Spring mix containing baby spinach, distributed to retailers in Texas, Iowa and New Mexico. Product was packed in 5 oz. bags and 5 oz. plastic trays. Products that do not contain spinach are not part of this recall.

On 9/15/06, Natural Selection Foods, LLC, of San Juan Bautista, California, announced a voluntary recall of all products containing spinach in all brands they pack with "Best if Used by Dates" of August 17, 2006 through October 1, 2006. These products include spinach and any salad with spinach in a blend, both retail and food service products. Products that do not contain spinach are not part of this recall.
Natural Selection Foods, LLC brands include: Natural Selection Foods, Pride of San Juan, Earthbound Farm, Bellissima, Dole, Rave Spinach, Emeril, Sysco, O Organic, Fresh Point, River Ranch, Superior, Nature's Basket, Pro-Mark, Compliments, Trader Joe's, Ready Pac, Jansal Valley, Cheney Brothers, D'Arrigo Brothers, Green Harvest, Mann, Mills Family Farm, Premium Fresh, Snoboy, The Farmer's Market, Tanimura & Antle, President's Choice, Cross Valley, and Riverside Farms.

The affected products were also distributed to Canada, Mexico, and Taiwan. No illnesses have been reported from these countries. FDA continues to investigate whether other companies and brands are involved.
Symptoms of E. coli O157:H7 Illness
E. coli O157:H7 causes diarrhea, often with bloody stools. Although most healthy adults can recover completely within a week, some people can develop a form of kidney failure called HUS. HUS is most likely to occur in young children and the elderly. The condition can lead to serious kidney damage and even death.
Lettuce Safety Initiative
The FDA developed the Lettuce Safety Initiative in response to recurring outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in lettuce. As a result of this outbreak, the initiative has been expanded to cover spinach. The primary goals of the initiative are to reduce public health risks by focusing on the product, agents and areas of greatest concern and to alert consumers early and respond rapidly in the event of an outbreak. This initiative is based on the 2004 Produce Safety Action Plan, intended to minimize the incidence of food borne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce.
FDA continues to work closely with the CDC and state and local agencies to determine the cause and scope of the E. coli outbreak in spinach. Please check for updates.

source from:Peter DaSilva for The New York Times
Fields of greens in California near Natural Selection Foods, which has been implicated in the outbreak.

Wis. children suffer spinach illnesses
Associated Press
Dinesh Ramde
MILWAUKEE -- Anne Grintjes, whose 6-year-old son and 3-year-old daughter fell ill during a multi-state E. coli outbreak linked to tainted spinach, can't even look at produce now without cringing. The boy spent 10 days in Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, battling infection and kidney failure. His mother was cited as saying the boy ate fresh bagged spinach before he started getting sick Sept. 2, adding, "He couldn't move, he couldn't walk. He was yellow. The little boy that he was, you know, was there behind the sick eyes but the disease was taking over his body. He was fighting for his life."
Now he's recovering, while his sister deals with symptoms that started last week, their mother said. Both children tested positive for E. coli. They are among 131 people in 21 states who have been linked to spinach contamination, according to numbers released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of those taken ill, 66 were hospitalized and 20 developed a type of kidney failure, the CDC reported. Wisconsin has been hardest hit with 32 confirmed cases, nearly a quarter of the total in the CDC count, and the only death. Utah reported 16 cases and Ohio 15. State figures put Wisconsin's total even higher. Marion Graff, 77, a retired bank clerk and widow from Manitowoc, is the nation's only confirmed fatality in the outbreak. She died of kidney failure Sept. 7 caused by an E. coli infection. A third company, RLB Food Distributors LP, based in West Caldwell, N.J., said Tuesday it was voluntarily recalling salad mixes that may contain spinach supplied by Natural Selection.
Paul Biedrzycki, the director of disease control and prevention for the City of Milwaukee Health Department, was cited as saying reporting of E. coli infections is notoriously unreliable, adding, "If I see six cases, that could mean there were really 60 to 100 cases. Where you get concerned is when there's a cluster of cases within a short period of time."
In a related story, federal health officials are investigating whether a more potent strain of E. coli is behind an outbreak linked to fresh spinach.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Tuesday that fully 50 percent of those reported sick in the outbreak were hospitalized. That's more than the 25 percent to 30 percent seen in other E. coli outbreaks, said Dr. David Acheson of the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, adding, "We're running higher than that. One possibility is this is a virulent strain."
Also unexpected was the 15 percent of food poisoning victims who developed a type of kidney failure called hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Five percent is more typical, Acheson said.
He cautioned that the numbers could be skewed by underreporting of less severe cases of illness.
Meanwhile, FDA inspectors visited nine California farms Tuesday, seeking signs of past flooding or cases where contaminated surface areas had come into contact with crops, said Robert Brackett, director of the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
They were on the lookout for animal droppings in the fields; checking on sanitary conditions inside the plants where produce is processed; and taking samples from produce itself, as well as from common areas in the processing plants that could harbor bacteria.
"They will look for any obvious or even suspected places where this organism could gain access to the produce," said Brackett, while acknowledging it was unlikely they would pinpoint the exact source of the contamination.

Spinach 5 more cases of E. coli (NE)
Lincoln Journal Star (NE)
Anna Jo Bratton, Associated Press
OMAHA Five more cases of E. coli in Nebraska have been linked to tainted spinach that¡¯s killed one person and sickened more than 130 people across the country, state health officials said Tuesday. Of the six confirmed cases, one of which was reported Monday, two are in Cass County, one in Douglas, two in Sarpy and one in Saunders, according to Nebraska Health and Human Services System. Three people in Nebraska have been hospitalized. The afflicted range in age from 13 to 83. State health officials are still investigating five other E. coli cases that may also be linked to spinach.

Source of E. coli outbreak not limited to spinach: Some infections may be tied to Manitowoc County Fair
Green Bay Press-Gazette (Wisconsin)
Gannett Wisconsin Newspapers and The Associated Press
MANITOWOC ? Amy Wergin, county public health nurse, was cited as saying that five of the seven E. coli cases being investigated by the Manitowoc County Health Department may have been caused by exposure to animals at the county fair.
Wergin said test results have been returned from the State Lab of Hygiene for five of the six remaining Manitowoc County cases, with the final test result expected later this week. Local investigators have determined that four people in those cases reported attending the fair in late August. The infections occurred between Aug. 26 and Sept. 1.
The health department is investigating whether the fair could be a source of the infection, Wergin said.
"We are still in the information-gathering phase and until we can get the samples from the fairground complete, there isn't a whole lot that we can do," Wergin said.

Couple sues over illness linked to spinach
The Buffalo News,0,6829696.story?coll=ny-region-apnewyork
BUFFALO, N.Y. -- A couple who say their teenage daughter became ill after eating bagged fresh spinach has sued Chiquita Brands International.
The parents, referred to as John and Jane Doe in the suit, claim their daughter contracted an E. coli infection after eating spinach sold under Chiquita's Fresh Express brand two weeks ago. The girl remains hospitalized in stable condition after undergoing dialysis, said attorney Chris O'Brien, who represents the family.
The state Supreme Court lawsuit filed Monday names both Cincinnati-based Chiquita and its Salinas, Calif., subsidiary, Fresh Express.

Researchers say deadly bacteria may be in, not on, spinach
The Western Star (Ohio)
Jeff Nesmith
WASHINGTON Scientists at Rutgers University reported four years ago that they had shown that quantities of E. coli bacteria sufficient to cause disease can be present in - rather than on - the plants' leaves.
"I am concerned from the findings that we have," said Karl Matthews, a microbiologist. "You can't wash the organism away from the crop. Even if it's washed several times, you're not actually washing away the organism."
After growing lettuce in soil that had been deliberately inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, Matthews washed the leaves in bleach but still found the bacteria inside the plant tissues.
He and other researchers concluded that the pathogen had clearly traveled to edible parts of the lettuce through the roots. He said the research was not designed to determine how much contamination could have occurred, but whether it could happen at all. Even so, he said, in some cases the amount of E. coli found in the leaves was sufficient to cause disease.
In 2004 and 2005, the FDA's top food safety official told California farmers that they should do more to protect crops from the floodwaters that periodically strike the central Salinas Valley, the Associated Press reported. The waters are known to be subject to E. coli contamination.
No one has shown that organically produced vegetables are likely to be more vulnerable to this form of contamination than conventionally grown crops. However, organic crops are nourished not with chemical fertilizer but with material that contains animal manure, usually the source of E. coli.
Federal regulations adopted for organic foods prohibit application of raw animal manure to crops within 120 days of harvest if the edible portion comes into contact with the manure. Raw manure is not allowed within 90 days of harvest of any food crop. However, these regulations determine only whether a farmer qualifies for the Department of Agriculture "organic food," seal and are not enforced by food safety officials. Instead, private organizations approved by the department visit farms and "certify" them for the seal.
A California company that has been at the center of an outbreak of E. coli poisoning in raw spinach produces an organic line of fresh vegetables.

FDA takes heat over recent E. coli outbreak
Knight Ridder Tribune
James Temple, Contra Costa Times, Walnut Creek, Calif.
As the E. coli outbreak stretched into 21 states, food safety advocates were cited as calling on the federal government to revamp its regulations for fruit and vegetable production.
Chris Waldrop, a deputy director at the Consumer Federation of America, was quoted as saying, "(Government) budgets for food safety have been going down for the last several years. The cracks are starting to show."
The food poisonings are the latest in a string of at least 19 outbreaks linked to lettuce or spinach since 1995. Eight were traced to the Salinas Valley, known as the "salad bowl of the world."
Caroline Smith DeWaal, food safety director for Washington, D.C.-based Center for Science in the Public Interest, was cited as saying that warnings and guidance obviously are not enough, adding, "It's time to take action. We can't wait for more outbreaks."
DeWaal said that Congress must streamline the patchwork of agencies that now oversee see food safety, provide more resources for inspecting farms and processing plants, hand the FDA and U.S. Department of Agriculture the power to issue mandatory recalls and tighten regulations for the handling and processing food.
The FDA was already in the process of implementing the Lettuce Safety Initiative, an effort to assess industry practices, refine government guidelines and consider additional regulatory action. The organization said it will now expand the initiative to include spinach.

States Affected by E. coli contaminated spinach

E. coli outbreak points to weakness of FDA
Source of Article:
Agency, struggling with tainted spinach, could learn from hamburger case
By Herb Weisbaum
MSNBC contributor
Sept 18, 2006
Source of Article:
Once again, a nasty bacterium called E. coli 0157:H7 is making national news, reminding us that the U.S. food supply is not as safe as it could be. The current spinach outbreak is not an isolated case, and the E. coli problem is not limited to one type of produce. This type of bacterial contamination has been going on for years, and the problem seems to be getting worse, according to Lee Riley, professor of epidemiology and infectious diseases at the University of California in Berkeley.
Riley knows a lot about E. coli 0157:H7. In 1981 he worked at the Centers for Disease Control and investigated the first E. Coli case in hamburger meat. He predicts we will ¡°definitely see more cases involving spinach, lettuce and other salad greens¡± in the years ahead.
Part of the problem is the Food and Drug Administration cannot regulate on the farm ¡°until people are getting sick,¡± says Caroline Smith DeWaal, director of food safety at the Center for Science in the Public Interest. So the agency tries to manage this hazard by asking the industry to make changes voluntarily. Clearly this voluntary approach is not working.
¡°The FDA needs better tools,¡± Smith DeWaal says. ¡°They need stronger authority. They need more people and resources to enforce rules both on the farm and in produce packing and processing plants.¡±
FDA officials did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
The FDA could take a lesson from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. After serious outbreaks of E. coli in meat in the mid-1990s, the USDA took strong action. It implemented new rules and performance standards. Since then the problem of E. coli in ground beef has declined dramatically. At the same time cases of E. coli in produce, which is regulated by the FDA, have gone up.
With meat, proper cooking will kill any harmful bacteria present. But you aren¡¯t going to cook your salad greens. Washing reduces the bacteria count but does not completely eliminate it. Because there is no guaranteed household solution to this problem, it must be dealt with on the farm before the product makes it to market.
The FDA is well aware of the problem. In 1998 it issued a ¡°Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fruits and Vegetables.¡± These voluntary guidelines were supposed to help growers and packers implement safer practices. They didn¡¯t.
On Nov. 4, 2005, the FDA sent a letter to California firms that grow, pack and process fresh lettuce, telling them of its ¡°serious concern with the continuing outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut lettuce and other leafy greens.¡±

The letter ¡°encourages¡± the industry to take steps to provide a safe product to the consumer. ¡°In light of continuing outbreaks,¡± the letter said, ¡°it is clear that more needs to be done.¡±
E. coli contamination is not limited to bagged salad or salad ingredients. But many past outbreaks have been traced to pre-packaged and pre-washed greens, including spinach, romaine, iceberg and leaf lettuce.
Smith DeWaal says the outbreaks from bagged greens ¡°have been broader and more widespread because of the distribution system.¡± Greens are mixed and sealed, then shipped to many places.
Riley tries to buy fresh greens that are not pre-packaged. ¡°If it¡¯s bagged, it¡¯s been handled multiple times,¡± he says, ¡°increasing the risk for contamination.¡±
If not properly refrigerated, he says, the bag ¡°becomes an incubator for the bacteria.¡± Greens that are sold loose are less likely to be exposed to this incubator effect.
But even if the greens are sold loose, they still could be contaminated by bacteria from soil or water can be sucked up into a plant¡¯s root system. ¡°Experimentally, it¡¯s also been shown that the bacteria can make it into the leaf,¡± he says. If that happens, no amount of washing will remove it.
We eat a salad for dinner every night in my house. When the spinach recall was announced, my wife asked if we should skip the salads for a while. What may seem like an overreaction is a question many people are now asking.
No one has suggested that we stop eating fresh produce; fruits and vegetables are good for us. And when you consider how much produce is consumed each year, the risk of getting sick is very small.
And yet ¡°you need to assume all fruits and vegetables have been contaminated with bacteria and handle them with care,¡± advises Don Mays, Senior Director of Product Safety and Consumer Science at Consumers Union. This includes organic and non-organic, packaged and non-packaged.
¡°We can¡¯t tell you that one type is better than the other,¡± Mays says.
Even if the salad greens come pre-washed, ¡°don¡¯t assume it¡¯s thoroughly clean,¡± May says. Consumer Reports recently tested some pre-washed bagged salads and found that one of every 62 bags contained a strain of E. coli, although not necessarily to most dangerous kind.
While washing fresh produce won¡¯t eliminate the possibility of getting sick, it can certainly reduce the amount of contamination present.

Here¡¯s the process Consumer Reports suggests:
Wash your hands with hot soapy water
Wash the produce thoroughly in a running stream of water
Dry the produce with a paper towel
Clean the food preparation surface with a soapy water or disinfectant solution
Wash your hands again in hot soapy water

In 2002, dramatic changes took place in the meat industry after Con Agra was forced to recall 19 million pounds of ground meat. This spinach recall will have a huge economic impact on growers in California. If they take a big enough hit, it could be the tipping point for the produce industry.

FDA should monitor produce carefully
Sept. 20, 2006
Ben Humeniuk/Lariat Staff

Perhaps Popeye had the right idea when it came to his spinach-eating habits: Stick to the can. The Food and Drug Administration advised consumers Monday not to eat any fresh spinach while investigators look for the cause of an E. coli bacteria contamination that has sickened 131 people and caused one death.
Last week's advisory focused specifically on bagged spinach, yet the FDA is now asking consumers to avoid the fresh vegetable altogether. The spinach leaves also can be purchased from bulk bins or consumed at salad bars and restaurants.
So far the cause of the 21-state outbreak is still undertermined, but its currently under investigation.
An FDA press release said washing the spinach will not rid the vegetable of the E. coli bacteria, because as a living organism the plant may have contracted the bacteria out of the soil, thus implanting the bacteria in the leaves of spinach.
With questions flying over the FDA's watch over irrigation and fertilization, is organic food a healthier choice for consumers?
Although some might stress that natural fertilization is safer than using chemical pesticides and fertilizers, perhaps the latter methods are more consumer-friendly.
If the outbreak of E. coli is due to the contaminated fecal matter being used as organic fertilizer, has the FDA fallen behind on monitoring the production of produce?
Spinach-producing companies are voluntarily recalling their products to aid the investigation and prevent any other sickness. So far, the FDA has sated that 114 cases of E. coli sickness have been reported to the CDC, including 18 cases of kidney failure and one death.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web site said the spinach involved in the investigation suspected to have been grown in California and it most likely was contaminated in the field or during its processing.
The FDA said Monday that it plans to continue with its investigation, seizing any contaminated produce to determine the cause of the outbreak.
So avoid this salad companion until the situation has been resolved, and in the meantime, grocery store shelves will remain empty of the bagged leaves, and children across American can enjoy the break from the loathed vegetable.

Food safety researchers focused on prevention
Ohio State University Extension Media Release
Martha Filipic

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Food safety researchers with Ohio State University Extension say the latest E. coli outbreak shows that food safety concerns must be taken seriously, "from the farm to the plate."
"The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 5,000 people per year die of foodborne illnesses in the United States alone. This is abhorrent for the world's most developed nation," said Ken Lee, professor of food science and technology in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences and director of Ohio State's Center for Food Safety. "Nobody should die from eating; the body count should be zero. I think with our current science and technology, we have the ability to make a significant reduction in foodborne illness within our lifetimes."
Lee is collaborating on a new research study funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to investigate how foodborne pathogens such as E. coli survive in fresh produce, particularly leafy salad vegetables. The study is being led by Jeff LeJeune, assistant professor with the Food Animal Health Research Program at Ohio State's Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster, whose primary research focus is pre-harvest food safety. Also involved in the study is Sally Miller, professor of plant pathology also based in Wooster, and a researcher and OSU Extension specialist in vegetable crop diseases. Their research is expected to find new ways to prevent foodborne-pathogen outbreaks in produce by targeting factors, such as lesions caused by plant diseases, that may contribute to contamination of vegetables in the field and during transportation.
"Outbreaks like this are a rare occurrence, given how many people consume these products on a daily basis," LeJeune said. "But when there is a problem, the consequences can be high, especially for children and the elderly. What we hope to do is find ways to prevent outbreaks like this from happening even less often than they do now." LeJeune says he knows of no other food safety study with this blend of combined expertise.
The research will likely be viewed with interest, considering the current outbreak of E. coli O157:H7. As of Sept. 17, 109 cases of illness linked to this outbreak have been reported to the CDC in 19 states, including at least one death, and 16 cases involving a type of kidney failure called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Since 1995, there have been 19 outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by E. coli O157:H7 for which lettuce or leafy greens were implicated as the outbreak vehicle.
Lydia Medeiros, food safety specialist with Ohio Sate University Extension, said consumers sometimes don't recognize the symptoms that indicate foodborne illness. With E. coli, the symptom to be on guard for is bloody diarrhea.
"If you have the symptom of bloody diarrhea, seek medical attention. Do not try to treat yourself," Medeiros said. "Research has shown that if you have E. coli, over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications may lead to complications because the pathogens stay in your intestine longer. So if you have bloody diarrhea, that's serious. Get to the doctor. Don't try to treat it yourself.
Medeiros, who is also an associate professor of human nutrition in the College of Education and Human Ecology, said consumers need to be aware that washing leafy greens "is not a way to prevent illness, because we don't know where bacteria might be located -- on the surface or internally. Research is being done to determine that, but right now, we don't know."
However, it's also important to note that E. coli is destroyed by heat, "so thoroughly cooked spinach should be safe," Medeiros said. "But 'thoroughly cooked' means 160 degrees Fahrenheit. Lightly sauteing spinach, as you might do for pasta, is not enough. But using spinach in a casserole or quiche, or in a spinach-artichoke dip that's baked, that should be fine."
While fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly linked to foodborne illness, bagged ready-to-eat leafy greens may pose a special risk simply because they are designed for lengthier storage. "If they are contaminated, there's more opportunity for bacteria to multiply and grow to infective doses than for fresh leafy greens," Medeiros said. "They are thoroughly washed before being packaged, but the fact is, we don't know where the bacteria are." Currently, the Food and Drug Administration is advising consumers not to eat any fresh spinach or fresh-spinach containing products unless they are thoroughly cooked.
Lee added that the body of knowledge about food safety has intensified in recent years.
"The academic community is learning, just like consumers are learning, that safety is a continuous chain from the farm to the plate," Lee said. "Two decades ago, hardly anyone thought of E. coli in fruits and vegetables. Somehow, we always thought a fresh fruit was tacitly wholesome -- we either were unaware or ignored the potential of these uncooked foods to harbor unsafe bacteria. Today we know better; fresh fruits and vegetables are very significant source of potential illness."
Although the American food supply is generally safe and wholesome, the fact is that foodborne pathogens can be anywhere, and processors and researchers must uncover new ways to battle them.
"The presence of human pathogens on the farm will ultimately result in pathogens on the plate," Lee said. "We need to interrupt that chain of events to achieve the next level of safety of our food supply."

Current Job Information
09/20. Quality Assurance Manager - Food Industry ONLY - NJ-Southern
09/20. Food Safety Specialist - Portland, OR
09/20. Food Safety Specialist - Sacramento, CA
09/20. HACCP Coordinator - SSOP, QA, USDA - Nashville, Madison, TN

Common Sanitation Performance Standards Questions Answered
September 20, 2006
Source of Article:

Answers to five commonly asked questions by small and very small establishments about the Sanitation Performance Standards have been made available by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The agency compiled the questions as part of its enhanced outreach to small and very small plants.
The new information addresses questions related to chemical sanitizer approval, wall materials and document requirements, among others.
To review all the information, go to

Which Spinach Is Safe To Eat, According To Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Friday September 15, 6:23 pm ET
Source of Article:
NEW ROCHELLE, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Sept. 15, 2006--Some spinach is still safe to eat, according to the authoritative peer reviewed journal, Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Consumers should heed the warning of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration against eating fresh, bagged spinach because of an ongoing E. coli outbreak that has killed one person and sickened about 50 others in 10 states. However, there are safe alternatives that include canned and frozen spinach according to Kathryn J. Boor, PhD, a member of the editorial board of the Journal. "Thoroughly cooked canned spinach or thoroughly reheated frozen spinach will be free from the E. coli organism. This cooking should be beyond light heating or steaming," advises Kathryn J. Boor, PhD, from the Department of Food Science at Cornell University.
"Consumers are very confused about whether they can safely eat any spinach, and which spinach products are safe," said Mary Ann Liebert, president and CEO of Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. "It is important to understand so that they can choose appropriate alternatives while protecting themselves from this E. coli outbreak."
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published quarterly in print and online that publishes original papers and short communications on research aimed at identifying, preventing, and controlling diseases caused by foodborne pathogens. Featured topics include emerging pathogens, emergence of drug resistance, methods and technology for rapid and accurate detection, strategies to destroy or control foodborne pathogens in food production and processing, and novel strategies to promote food safety. Tables of contents and a free sample issue may be viewed online at
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases and Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science. Its biotechnology trade magazine, Genetic Engineering News (GEN), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 60 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available at

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