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5/17
2007
ISSUE:256

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Melamine Special Issue
Send your opinions for Melamine to info@foodhaccp.com.


Melamine














U.S. Dept. of Agriculture: Hogs linked to melamine safe to eat


By Dawn House
he Salt Lake Tribune
Article Last Updated: 05/15/2007 01:55:19 PM MDT
Posted: 1:55 PM- More than 56,000 hogs - including 3,000 from four northern Utah farms -that ate feed contaminated with the industrial chemical melamine have been released for slaughter, federal agriculture officials said Tuesday.
The hogs in Utah and six other states had been placed in limbo for nearly three weeks until investigators confirmed the melamine was excreted in the animals' urine and had not contaminated the meat, the officials said during a teleconference from Washington, D.C.
Tests and so-called risk assessment studies indicate the "meat is safe for human consumption," said Kenneth Petersen, an assistant administrator with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Still on hold are test results for about 80,000 breeder chickens in Indiana and an undetermined number of fish from two commercial fish farms in Hawaii and Washington, where contaminated feed was shipped.
The melamine was exported into the United States by two Chinese companies that had injected it into ground wheat flour, which in turn was mislabeled as wheat gluten and protein rice concentrate. The companies have been shut down and its executives detained by Chinese officials.

Melamine found in fish feed at ODFW hatchery



Canada's food watchdog says 57 fish hatcheries and fish farms bought melamine-contaminated food pellets.
(CBC)










Tuesday, May 15, 2007
SALEM - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has confirmed the finding of melamine in fish feed at the Marion Forks Hatchery in Idanha.
The Marion Forks Hatchery manager had discontinued use of the feed, labeled as Bio Vita Starter, No. 1 crumble grade, lot No. 32734, several days earlier when the FDA initially contacted them about testing the feed.
The No. 1 crumble grade of food is used as a starter diet for juvenile salmon and trout.
Subsequent to the FDA's confirmation that there was melamine in the fish feed, ODFW officials contacted the Skretting Company representatives to find out if the feed had been shipped to other ODFW hatcheries.
Representatives from Skretting confirmed that the same lot was sent to the Willamette, Gnat Creek, Big Creek, Cole Rivers, Butte Falls and Leaburg hatcheries.
Hatchery managers immediately discontinued using any remaining fish feed from the lot in question and notified the FDA. There has been no sampling by the FDA at these locations as of yet.
"Although officials from the FDA have not associated any risk to the fish or humans as a result of the melamine finding, we've stopped using the lot No. 32734 feed," said Steve Williams, ODFW deputy fish administrator.
"We're taking a measured approach and working with several state and federal agencies to ensure the health of our hatchery fish populations."
The Oregon Department of Agriculture is responsible for regulating commercial fish feed and other animal feed distributed in Oregon. ODA has been working with FDA on the investigation of melamine-contaminated ingredients and will continue partnering with FDA and ODFW in the fish feed investigation.
The fish feed is manufactured in Vancouver, Canada, by the Skretting Company. It's distributed under the Bio-Oregon label out of Longview, Wash.
Melamine is not thought to bio-accumulate in fish. However, Skretting is taking the precautionary step of voluntarily recalling all un-fed starter feed related to the batch in question.
In their recent press release, Skretting officials said that they are working in close cooperation with the FDA and Canadian Food Inspection Agency on this issue.

Cereal Byproducts Company Announces the Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Rice Protein Concentrate Produced in China
source from: http://www.solanconews.com
MT. PROSPECT, ILCereal Byproducts Company is announcing that the FDA has determined that there are melamine and/or melamine derivatives in the rice protein concentrate produced by a single source Chinese supplier, Binzhou Futian Biology Technology Co. Ltd., and purchased through a local domestic importer. Cereal Byproducts shipped the recalled product to a total of three customers located in the Midwest between July 19, 2006 and March 14, 2007. The FDA previously found melamine and/or melamine derivatives in Wilbur-Ellis Company's rice protein concentrate, which was purchased from the same Chinese supplier as Cereal Byproducts. Cereal Byproducts proactively notified their customers of this finding, and thereafter both parties implemented their own voluntary recall of the contaminated products on or about April 19, 2007.
Although Cereal Byproducts has received no confirmed cases of pet deaths, it voluntarily chose to initiate the recall when Cereal Byproducts discovered there was a potential contamination of melamine or melamine type derivatives in the rice protein. We are confident that our customers have implemented on-going recalls and the remaining rice protein concentrate, not previously distributed to these customers, is located at a separate warehouse facility under quarantine.
Cereal Byproducts assures its customers that the safety and quality of the ingredients it supplies is a top priority. Since 1917 it has always been our goal to ensure the safety and integrity of our products. Cereal Byproducts is working closely with the FDA to assist in its efforts to address the recent development affecting the pet food industry.
Customers with questions about this recall or any Cereal Byproducts Company product should visit the website at riceproteinrecall.com or visit the FDA website at www.fda.gov for more information.

A Chinese dog owner walks her dog in Beijing. A Chinese company accused of selling chemical-tainted wheat gluten, linked to the deaths of at least a dozen pet cats and dogs in the United States, says it sells most of its wheat gluten within China, raising concerns about whether people or animals there have been exposed.








China crackdown on food safety
source from:
http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/B5DAB617-FB9A-48EA-98B3-9EA46515AF01.htm
A series of scandals over tainted food has prompted the government to promise action

China has announced a nationwide campaign to tackle food and drug safety problems, vowing a raft of measures to tackle errant producers and enforce standards.
The move follows a series of scandals at home and abroad, including a recent case involving tainted pet food in the US that has left dozens of cats and dogs dead.
Ealier this week authorities announced the detention of managers from two Chinese firms linked to the contaminated pet food pending an investigation.
US officials said ingredients used in the pet food had been tainted with melamine, a chemical used in plastics, fertilisers and flame retardants.
In a statement on its website, China's General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine said the companies broke regulations by adding the melamine, and then broke the law by mislabelling the exported products to avoid detection.

Standards
Announcing the new regulations China's cabinet, the State Council, said on Wednesday the crackdown would compel companies to adopt "standards used in food-importing countries".
The Xinhua New Agency meanwhile cited officials as saying the government was in the process of drafting amendments to the country's food safety law, but gave no details.
It said all classes of food and drugs would be subject to more rigorous inspections, with an emphasis on securing the food supply chain and boosting food safety in the vast, mostly impoverished countryside.
The crackdown comes as China faces criticism from the US and European Union for what they allege are unfair trade practices, and fears that tainted food scandals could lead to bans on Chinese food products.

Banned
US inspectors say tainted pet food killed an
unknown number of dogs and cats [Reuters]
Already this year, the US states of Mississippi and Alabama have banned catfish from China after tests found they contained antibiotics banned in the US.
Excessive antibiotic or pesticide residues have also led to bans in Europe and Japan on Chinese shrimp, honey and other products.
Hong Kong blocked imports of turbot last year after inspectors found traces of malachite green - a potential cancer-causing chemical used to treat fungal infections - in some fish.
Within China meanwhile, babies have died after being fed fake baby formula, cancer-causing dyes have been injected into eggs to make yolks redder, and children have been given saltwater passed off as rabies vaccine.
At the same time, observers say, the Chinese agency that sets regulator standards for food and drug safety has been in disarray for years.
Its director, Zheng Xiaoyu, was sacked in 2005 and has since been accused of taking up to $780,000 in bribes to approve untested medicines, including an antibiotic that killed at least 10 patients.
He is scheduled to go on trial in mid-May on charges of corruption.

Pigs Given Tainted Feed are Cleared for Market

Pigs that were fed contaminated pet food scraps are safe to be eaten.
The U.S. Agriculture Department gave the all-clear today. This will allow the estimated 56,000 pigs to be slaughtered for human consumption.
The feed included scraps from pet food made with an ingredient later found to be tainted by compounds like the industrial chemical melamine.
Those compounds proved lethal to an unknown number of dogs and cats fed tainted pet food. It's believed the chemical became diluted enough in farm animal feed to not pose a risk to pigs -- or the people who eat them.
Officials say a 132-pound person would have to eat more than 800 pounds of melamine-tainted pork a day to run any health risk.

SDA Clears Swine for Processing Human Health Risk Assessment Updated
source from: http://www.rushprnews.com/press/archives/123704
Washington, DC (rushprnews) May 17, 2007 -Testing confirms that meat from swine fed rations supplemented with pet food scraps containing melamine and related compounds is safe for human consumption, prompting the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to allow swine held on farms to be released and approved for processing.
Testing of meat from swine exposed to the feed in question confirms that melamine and melamine compounds do not accumulate in pork and are filtered out of the body by the action of the kidneys. The testing also bolsters the conclusions reached by a human health risk assessment that there is a very low risk of human illness from the consumption of meat from animals exposed to the feed in question. Swine known to have eaten this feed appear healthy, which will be confirmed as these animals undergo the rigorous inspection that FSIS provides for all meat and poultry prior to processing.
There were approximately 56,000 swine that consumed the feed in question and were held on farms in California, North Carolina, South Carolina, New York, Kansas, Utah and Illinois. USDA will provide compensation to producers for certain additional costs incurred as a result of voluntarily holding the animals. Approximately 100 million swine are processed each year in the U.S.
The process for testing meat from swine was validated by USDA¡¯s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS).

Human Health Risk Assessment
The human health risk assessment announced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and USDA last week has been updated. It still concludes that there is very low risk of harm to humans from eating food containing low levels of melamine or related compounds.
The updated risk assessment concludes that in the most extreme risk assessment scenario, when scientists assumed that all the solid food a person consumes in an entire day contained melamine and the melamine compound cyanuric acid at levels potentially present in the meat, the potential exposure is about 250 times lower than the dose considered safe. Translated to consumption levels, this means that a person weighing 132 pounds would have to eat more than 800 pounds per day of pork or other food containing melamine and its compounds to approach a level of consumption that would cause a health concern. Previously, the agencies reported that the potential exposure was about 2,500 times lower than the safe level.
The initial human risk assessment assumed that tests of swine meat detected melamine and its compounds. The testing validation process, completed on May 12, revealed that while the swine meat test detects melamine, it cannot detect melamine related compounds. The updated assessment calculates risk based on the new updated laboratory information that accounts for the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid, a melamine related compound detected in the contaminated feed.
In addition, the original risk assessment assumed that testing could detect levels of melamine and related compounds as low as 10 parts per billion (ppb) in pork. The new assessment assumes that testing can detect levels only as low as 50 ppb in pork, a more conservative assumption, and an even higher level of 100 ppb is assumed in order to account for the potential presence of cyanuric acid, in addition to melamine.
FDA and USDA are in the process of identifying scientific experts who would be charged with reviewing the updated risk assessment. They will be asked to provide their views to FDA as quickly as possible, with the intent of finalizing the risk assessment within several weeks.

Update on Other Affected Products
Approximately 80,000 poultry continue to be held at USDA¡¯s request at farms in Indiana while a validated test for detecting melamine in poultry meat is developed. That test is expected later this week.
FDA is continuing its investigation into the presence of melamine and its compounds in fish feed manufactured by the Canadian company Skretting. The company is recalling all fish feed from all commercial fisheries and fish hatcheries that may have received it, including those in the United States. FDA has confirmed there are two U.S. commercial aquaculture establishments that received the feed. The fish in those two establishments are on hold and samples of the fish and the feed are being tested for melamine levels. Based on the human risk assessment, there is very low risk from eating fish that consumed feed containing melamine.
USDA and FDA continue to conduct a full and comprehensive investigation. As additional information is confirmed, updates will be provided and decisions will be made using the best available science to protect the public¡¯s health.

Melamine-fed swine cleared
source from: http://www.capitalpress.info/
Validated test confirms safety of pork, investigation of poultry and fish feed continues
Bob Krauter
Capital Press California Editor

WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Agriculture has cleared swine being held on farms to be released for processing and consumption following additional investigation into the risks associated with pet food tainted with melamine.
On Tuesday, USDA officials announced that tests of meat from hogs exposed to the pet feed showed melamine does not concentrate in meat and is excreted in urine. As a result, they said the testing completed on May 12 offers additional evidence to support a human health risk assessment that the public health risk from consuming pork exposed to the suspect feed is very low.
"Today we are announcing that we do have a validated test for the presence of melamine in swine. Testing confirms that meat from swine fed rations supplemented with pet food scraps containing melamine and related compounds is safe for human consumption," said Dr. Kenneth Peterson, assistant administrator for Field Operations with the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. "Therefore, it's no longer necessary for a these swine to be held on farms. They can be safely sent for further processing."
Approximately 56,000 swine in California and five other states that consumed suspect feed were held on farms while a joint USDA-U.S. Food and Drug Administration investigation probed how melamine entered pet food channels and what the risks were to public health. Compensation will be paid to affected producers in California, Illinois, Kansas, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina and Utah for the costs they incurred for voluntarily holding their animals.
On April 18, FDA alerted the California Department of Food and Agriculture to the possibility of contaminated salvage pet food being fed to swine at American Hog Farm in Ceres. An investigation led to an immediate quarantine of the farm. Officials traced suspect animals to several Northern California vendors.
On Tuesday, federal officials said USDA continues to hold 80,000 poultry in Indiana pending the completion of a validated test of melamine in poultry later this week.
Officials are also investigating the presence of melamine and its compounds in fish feed manufactured by a Canadian company. The company, Skretting, is recalling its fish feed from all commercial fisheries and fish hatcheries that may have purchased it, including two U.S. commercial aquaculture operations. The fish are being held and samples are being taken of fish and feed to determine the presence of melamine.
Dr. David Acheson assistant commissioner for Food Protection with the FDA, said officials do not yet have specific information on the levels of melamine in those fish, but "based on the human health risk assessment that I have just been discussing, there's a very low risk associated with eating fish that consumed feed containing melamine."
It is believed melamine-contaminated rice protein concentrate and wheat gluten imported from China are the source of the problem. Acheson told reporters that FDA investigators have returned from China where they examined several sites. They will prepare reports on what they found and submit the information to the FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs in the near future, Acheson said.

Melamine-contaminated meat found safe for consumption
source from: http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com
By staff reporter
5/16/2007 - Meat from swine exposed to melamine has been found safe for human consumption, prompting the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to allow swine held on farms to be released and approved for processing.
According to testing conducted by the regulatory agency, melamine ingested through contaminated feed does not accumulate in pork and is filtered out of the body by the action of the kidneys.
The findings come as some relief to the meat industry, which faced the sudden quarantine of around 56,000 swine while an investigation was being carried out. The animals, which were held on farms in California, North Carolina, South Carolina, New York, Kansas, Utah and Illinois, have now been cleared for processing.
USDA said the testing bolsters the conclusions reached by a human health risk assessment that there is a "very low risk" of human illness from the consumption of meat from animals exposed to contaminated feed.
Announced last week, the risk assessment has now been updated with an examination of a "most extreme risk assessment scenario".
Scientists assumed that all the solid food a person consumes in an entire day contained melamine and the melamine compound cyanuric acid at levels potentially present in the meat. In this scenario, the potential exposure was found to be about 250 times lower than the dose considered safe, said USDA in a joint statement with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
"Translated to consumption levels, this means that a person weighing 132 pounds would have to eat more than 800 pounds per day of pork or other food containing melamine and its compounds to approach a level of consumption that would cause a health concern. Previously, the agencies reported that the potential exposure was about 2,500 times lower than the safe level."
The agencies' original risk assessment assumed that testing could detect levels of melamine and related compounds as low as 10 parts per billion (ppb) in pork. The new assessment assumes that testing can detect levels only as low as 50 ppb in pork, "a more conservative assumption", and an even higher level of 100 ppb is assumed in order to account for the potential presence of cyanuric acid, in addition to melamine.
FDA and USDA said they are also in the process of identifying scientific experts who would be charged with reviewing the updated risk assessment. They will be asked to provide their views to FDA as quickly as possible, with the intent of finalizing the assessment within several weeks.

MELAMINE AND ANALOGUES SAFETY/RISK ASSESSMENT: FACT SHEET
MELAMINE AND ANALOGUES SAFETY/RISK ASSESSMENT: FACT SHEET

Missouri pet food company issues melamine-related recall
Tuesday, May 15, 2007, 3:36 PM
by Julie Harker
Traces of melamine compounds found in dog and cat found made at a pet food company in St. Charles, Missouri, have led to a nationwide recall. Royal Canin USA is recalling eight dry dog foods carrying the Sensible Choice label, along with six dry dog foods marketed under the Kasco label. It's also recalling a Kasco cat food. The company says it has ?no- confirmed cases of melamine-related illnesses in any pets eating the food. The company says a ¡°very limited number¡± of its products tested positive for trace levels of melamine derivative. The Missouri company brands join the list of well over 100 pet food brands recalled because of the contaminated ingredients purchased from China.

China finds no trace of melamine
Souce from: http://washingtontimes.com/business
May 17, 2007
SHANGHAI (AP) -- China says checks on food exporters have turned up no sign of a chemical blamed for the deaths of cats and dogs in North America, and the country has urged U.S. authorities to refrain from further action against Chinese producers.
The government body responsible for overseeing food safety said it accompanied U.S. Food and Drug Administration inspectors on visits to two companies blamed for the chemical contamination.
The incidents involving Xuzhou Anying Biologic Technology Development Co. Ltd. and Binzhou Futian Biology Technology Co. Ltd. were "special individual cases," the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine said in a statement viewed on its Web site yesterday. U.S. inspectors said wheat gluten exported by the companies and used to make pet food was tainted with a mildly toxic melamine and caused the deaths of an unknown number of dogs and cats. That led to a recall of 154 brands of pet food contaminated with the chemical.
Chinese authorities have detained an undisclosed number of managers from the two companies. The statement said FDA inspectors also expressed satisfaction with the quality controls and tracing measures in place at another exporter of vegetable protein, Sinoglory, saying those met U.S. production standards for similar products.
"China emphasizes that its determination to crack down on law-breaking enterprises is firm and its policies are effective," according to the statement.
"We hope the American side will accurately and objectively deal with problems among individual companies and not take stringent measures against other Chinese companies producing the same type of products," it said.
China says the two companies added melamine to the gluten after failing to provide the protein level required in their contracts.
Melamine, used in plastics, fertilizers and flame retardants, has no nutritional value but is high in nitrogen, making products to which it is added appear to be higher in protein.
China also has accused the companies of illegally mislabeling their exported products to avoid inspections. U.S. officials say they don't believe melamine to be harmful to humans, but say they have too little data to determine how it reacts with other substances.

China urges U.S. to act fairly over tainted food
source from: http://www.iht.com/articles/
SHANGHAI: China has urged the United States not to take punitive action against exporters of agricultural goods even though the government found that two Chinese companies intentionally contaminated American pet food ingredients with an industrial chemical.
The government said this week that it had recently closed the two companies and had also detained several company officials for helping cause one of the largest pet food recalls in United States history.
The announcement, which was released late Monday on the web site of the country's quality inspection watchdog, appeared just days after U.S. Food & Drug Administration investigators ended a two-week long visit to China seeking to determine how an industrial chemical called melamine got mixed into pet food ingredients.
"We hope the American side will accurately and objectively deal with problems among individual companies and not take stringent measures against other Chinese companies producing the same type of products," the government statement read.
China also said it hoped the case would not lead to trade frictions.
A spokesman for the FDA in Washington could not be reached for comment. On Tuesday, however, FDA officials said during a press conference that U.S. investigators had recently returned from China and were now preparing a report on the trip. The official said it was unclear when such a report would be released.
The announcement was the government's clearest signal yet that China was working hard to repair the damage done by the pet food scandal and growing concerns about the quality of the country's agricultural exports.
In recent weeks, China has vowed to step up its own inspections of agricultural and food exports and to prove that the country does not have a problem with melamine-tainted food or feed ingredients.
The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection & Quarantine said in its statement this week and in a similar statement a week earlier that recently completed nationwide inspections had not turned up any food or feed products containing melamine.
The government seems determined to paint the two Chinese companies blamed for exporting melamine-tainted wheat flour to the United States. as rogue companies, or "special individual cases" in a largely well-managed export industry.
The government's announcement, however, seems at odds with Chinese agricultural officials who in recent weeks have said in interviews that for years they have either used melamine in animal feed, sold it to animal and fish feed producers or knew of the sale and use of melamine in animal feed.
The interviews, with animal feed producers, melamine makers and melamine and feed traders, suggested that it was a widespread practice to mix melamine into feed in order to cheat buyers into thinking they were getting higher protein meal.
China initially rejected the role of Chinese exports in the pet food scandal and then insisted melamine could not have caused harm to American pets.
But later, the government announced a ban on the use of melamine in most food ingredients.
In its announcement Monday, China said its investigation showed that the two Chinese companies named by American regulators as the exporters of tainted wheat flour - Xuzhou Anying Biologic Technology Development and Binzhou Futian Biology Technology - had both sought to artificially bolster the protein reading on the goods they had exported to the U.S. by adding melamine, a chemical used to make plastics and fertilizer. Because melamine is high in nitrogen, it is known to spike protein counts.
The FDA and other government agencies have concluded that the melamine is unlikely to be harmful to humans, and that consuming meat from an animal that has ingested melamine does not pose a significant danger. Some hogs are now being released back into the food system.
Now, the FDA and the Chinese government are searching for a way to protect the food system and to resolve trade issues.

China food scare threatens exports as test costs soar
By Nao Nakanishi
source from: http://www.sciam.com
HONG KONG (Reuters) - Foreign buy
ers of Chinese food are asking for safety tests following the melamine pet food debacle, threatening the country's competitive position in a wide range of markets, including organic ingredients.
Industry officials said U.S. and other firms had demanded a certificate that farm products were free of melamine.
Their comments came after a U.S. Food and Drug Administration team visited China to investigate how melamine, a chemical product, got into pet food, killing at least 16 pets in the United States and leading to a recall of more than 100 brands of pet food.
Costs for such safety checks are expected to soar, especially as it would take time for the country to build up reliable nationwide quality controls.
"This scandal has had severe consequences for the whole industry," said Chuk Ng, general manager of Nutrogen (Dalian) Co. Ltd, a company specializing in organic and non-genetically modified (GMO) farm products.
"Now the European and U.S. clients are checking every ba
tch of products coming from China ... The GMO test is one. Now you add tests for melamine or other heavy metals or pesticides, the costs are very high, too high," Ng said.
Pressured by the U.S. government after the melamine breaches, Beijing has pledged to act on food safety and announced an industry clean-up that would bring inspections for fertilizer, pesticides and additives in livestock feed.
Foreign buyers, reluctant to take risks, are sending large quantities of food samples to international testing specialists such as Eurofins Scientific or SGS Group.

JAPAN, OWN SYSTEMS
The industry officials said Japan, which accounts for about a quarter of China's farm product exports, had also recommended importers check for melamine in Chinese products, such as rice flour or wheat gluten, for use in animal feed.
"The safety tests for raw materials are likely to get tougher," said a senior official from a Japanese food processing plant in China.
"Eventually they could demand traceability similar to that for non-GMO products ... which would raise costs. Given higher costs and credibility, there's a question if you would still want to buy raw materials from China."
A year ago Japan tightened safety checks on farm products from China, which has angered Beijing. The new rules require checks for nearly 300 pesticides and chemicals residues at loading ports as well as at discharging ports.
Asked how to guarantee the quality of food imported from China, an official in charge of food safety at one of Hong Kong's largest food retailers said: "It's very important to get system in place for traceability all the way back in the supply chain.
"When you have traceability, you can then have accountability. I think this is what China lacks."

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1st International Conference for Food Safety and Quality (Nov. 7-8, 2006)
Major Topic: Current Detection Methods for Microbiological/Chemical Hazards for Food Safety/Quality


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