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11/25/2002
Issue 29

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USDA issues guidelines on listeria detection

http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news/news.asp?id=1709
21/11/02 - The US Department of Agriculture has released an administrative directive outlining additional steps to be taken by USDA inspectors to ensure that establishments producing ready-to-eat meat and poultry products are taking the necessary steps to prevent contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. The directive is a result of last month's announcements calling for a strengthening of current Listeria protocols and testing programmes. Dr. Elsa Murano, the USDA's undersecretary for food safety, outlined the directive during a scientific summit held in Washington, DC, earlier this week. "This directive is an aggressive and targeted approach to further reduce the risk of listeriosis from consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat products," Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman said. "The actions we are announcing today underscore this Administration's continued commitment to improving public health through scientific enhancements of our inspection process." Under this directive, plants producing high and medium risk ready-to-eat products (deli-meats and hot dogs) that do not have an evaluated environmental testing regime designed to find and take necessary actions to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes will be placed under an intensified testing programme by the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). This programme will consist of increased testing of the final product and testing of food contact surfaces and plant environment. Plants that have an environmental testing programme but do not choose to share these testing data with FSIS on an ongoing basis will also fall under the intensified testing program. As a means of verification, those plants that share complete data from their environmental testing programme with the FSIS will be subject to a targeted testing programme, which consists of final product testing. "There is a vast amount of data generated through environmental testing by processing facilities. Making it available to the USDA will help our inspectors anticipate problems through proactive analysis of contamination trends at these establishments," said Dr Murano. In addition to this directive, the FSIS is in the process of completing an extensive, scientific risk assessment on Listeria monocytogenes to determine how the pathogen may contaminate meat products during production and packaging processes. The risk assessment, in conjunction with a risk ranking on products from retail establishments, will provide important additional data for the Agency to finalise its rulemaking process in the coming months on an effective regulatory approach to reducing Listeria monocytogenes in processing plants producing ready-to-eat products. The Listeria monocytogenes directive is available on the FSIS's website.

Scientists make breakthrough to control food bacteria

Source: http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news/news.asp?id=1722
22/11/02 - A report from the US-based Institute of Food Technologists highlights a series of methods to control food bacteria using antimicrobial food preservatives and sanitisers. The appropriate use of sanitisers and antimicrobial food preservatives is a simple method to control foodborne pathogens without concern for creating "super" bugs - microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial treatment, the report highlights. Entitled, Resistance and Adaptation to Food Antimicrobials, Sanitisers, and Other Process Controls, the report states that there is no evidence that proper use of antimicrobial agents in food manufacturing settings will lead to the development of resistant microorganisms. Acknowledging that data addressing the creation of antimicrobial resistant pathogens are scarce, the report calls for increasing studies of the conditions that exist within and on food production and processing lines. "In the laboratory, it's been proven beyond a shadow of a doubt that organisms can develop tolerances when improperly exposed to sanitisers or antimicrobials," said P. Michael Davidson, IFT member, professor at the University of Tennessee, and co-author of the summary. "More study is needed in realistic settings, such as model food processing lines." There is the potential for emergence of resistant microorganisms with an ever-increasing reliance on and use of sanitisers on food handling equipment and raw food products, the report states. However, it does not predict any public health problems resulting from microorganisms that develop resistance to current antimicrobial applications in food manufacturing. "There's no indication of an increase in the incidence of resistant organisms on food products," after applying preservatives, sanitisers or antimicrobial agents, Davidson said. Simple methods for overcoming the potential for development of antimicrobial resistance by pathogens in food manufacturing settings include the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents, avoidance of sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobial agents, and the appropriate use of combinations of antimicrobials, the report concludes.

So what kind of chicken is safe to eat?

Are free-range and organic chickens really twice as likely as battery to be contaminated with campylobacter? Felicity Lawrence Thursday November 21, 2002 The Guardian
http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,844124,00.html
The headlines earlier this week struck fear into would-be healthy eaters everywhere: free range and organic chickens were twice as likely to be contaminated with the campylobacter food poisoning bug as intensively reared indoor birds. Having invited researchers to drop the bombshell at a public meeting on organic food earlier this month, the food standards agency (FSA) has declined to comment further, saying the research is incomplete and that it is too early to give any advice. So here is an attempt to answer some of the many questions raised by the news.
What exactly did this incomplete research say?
Scientists from Bristol University tested chickens at an abattoir and found that organic and free-range birds were twice as likely to carry campylobacter as those from indoor flocks. They have not yet identified which strains of campylobacter were present or established how the contamination occurred. Professor Tom Humphrey was prompted to carry out the study by work in Denmark which had found that all organic birds tested contained campylobacter but only 50% of conventionally raised birds did. He released his interim results in an unscheduled speech to an FSA workshop on organic food.
Campy-what? Health inspectors call it campy for short, so you don't have to worry about the pronounciation, which is disputed anyway. You can make the "y" short and swallow it or long, as in "pylon", and stress it.
What is it anyway? Campylobacter is, like E-coli, a micro-organism which occurs in several strains. It is harmless to chickens, and some strains are also harmless to humans. The problem is that others - usually campylobacter jejuni, occasionally C-coli - can cause a particularly nasty kind of food poisoning, which is becoming more and more common. It doesn't cause vomiting but symptoms are, typically, painful stomach cramps and severe, often bloody, diarrhoea.
How common is it? Campylobacter is now the most common cause of reported food poisoning. GPs reported more than 56,000 confirmed cases last year. But many cases go unreported and some estimates put the incidence of campy poisoning at 10 times that level. The Public Health Service Laboratory says the main source of campy infection in people is poultry, although it is also found in red meat, unpasteurised milk and untreated water. Consumption of poultry is going up at the same rate as the rise in campylobacter poisoning. Although the bug doesn't grow in food, it spreads easily, so it only takes a few bacteria in a piece of chicken to contaminate whole batches in factories and cause illness requiring antibiotic treatment.
Why should organic and free-range chickens come out worse? Aren't they meant to be healthier?
The researchers do not yet know what the source of the contamination is. One theory is that chickens that have access to the outdoors are more likely to pick the bug up from wild birds than those kept in sheds all their lives. The organic farming organisation, the Soil Association, says that having large numbers of bacteria in the gut is essential to health; since organic birds are not treated regularly with antibiotics, they are likely to carry more bugs. What matters, according to them, is whether they are the strains which are harmful to humans or not, and that work has not yet been done.
They would say that, wouldn't they? Yes. They also point out that the head of the FSA, Sir John Krebs, is well-known for his anti-organic views. On the other hand, the hostile response given to Professor Humphrey at the workshop shows how hard it is for the FSA to find the answers to important questions about organic food, says the eminent microbiologist who published the findings in his newsletter.
Any other excuses? Organic birds are reared more slowly than factory birds which are typically fattened up for slaughter in just 42 days. The extra lifespan may give organic birds longer to get infected. But that wouldn't explain the difference between free-range birds and intensively farmed ones as they tend to be grown on the same 42-day cycle.
How else does the contamination spread? Large numbers of birds are contaminated at the processing factories where they are slaughtered, according to previous research from Bristol. The campy bug is carried in faeces. Chickens tend to defecate when being transported and any birds waiting to be killed are stacked up in crates with holes in them. Droppings from chickens at the top of the stack can fall down on to those below. After slaughter, the birds pass through scald tanks which loosen the feathers, but the water is generally only changed once a day, and after a few hours is often a brown soup. The biggest problem comes at the plucking stage, though. Plucking machines exert a fair amount of pressure on the dead birds which can squeeze faecal matter out on to equipment, so that one bird colonised with campylobacter can infect many others.
Is that what happens to organic and free-range birds too?
Yes, the vast majority of organic and free-range chickens are slaughtered in the same large plants as intensively reared ones. A few organic farms use small abattoirs.
Is it still worth paying ?5 for an organic chicken then?
Food safety is only one issue. Most people buying organic say they are concerned about animal welfare and the impact on the environment of intensive livestock farming. Welfare standards for organic chickens are much higher than for other birds. Organic chickens are kept at lower stocking densities than free-range or conventional ones, and must have access to outdoors for at least two thirds of their life. They must be reared for a minimum of 81 days before slaughter, whereas conventional birds put on weight so fast that they regularly suffer from heart and leg problems. Beak clipping is prohibited in organic farming. Routine use of medication is also banned.
What about free range?
Free-range chickens must have access to the outside, but the legal definition doesn't say how much. Routine antibiotic use is not allowed. However stocking densities in houses for free-range birds are higher than in organic ones so, in practice, free-range birds do not generally spend as much time outdoors as organic ones. That is reflected in prices - roughly half those of organic chickens.
What about the red tractor?
The red tractor is the symbol of "farm assured" British meat. This is an industry scheme which means little more than that the chicken meets minimum legal requirements on hygiene and welfare. It can be applied to intensively reared broiler birds.
Should we just wash our hands of it all?
Washing hands, chopping boards and knives thoroughly is a good idea, but not the bird as that could contaminate taps and surfaces.
Haven't you got any good news?
Well, salmonella is in decline, thanks largely to vaccination of flocks.

Food Safety General News
11/22. EFFECT OF NORWALK VIRUS NOT AS BAD AS FEARED
11/22. ACRYLAMIDE INFONET NOW ONLINE - REGISTER YOUR RESEARCH PROJE
11/22. AG ECONOMIST CALCULATES VALUE OF KNOWING THAT FOOD'S SAFE
11/22. A REVIEW OF CANADIAN FOOD SAFETY POLICY AND ITS EFFECTIVENES
11/22. USDA to Reinspect Tyson Beef Plant in Canada
11/22. EU must to more to allay GM safety concerns, says US officia
11/22. Non-GMO traceability in Brazil
11/22. Spinal cord found in imported beef
11/22. Guide to CWD Terms
11/22. Local melon importer indicted by feds
11/22. County caní»t shirk E. coli suit
11/22. CDC: Waterborne Diseases on the Rise
11/22. Scientists make breakthrough to control food bacteria
11/22. UFCW Local 1776 Says Wal-Mart Opposes Pennsylvania State Law
11/22. USDA issues guidelines on listeria detection
11/22. Irrigation taints Bangladeshi rice with arsenic
11/22. Serve Bacteria-Free Turkey and Leftovers
11/21. FSIS POSTS GUIDANCE ON VOLUNTARY ALLERGEN LABELING OF MEAT,
11/21. U.S. AGRICULTURE VULNERABLE TO BIOLOGICAL ATTACK
11/21. FSIS ISSUES FINAL VERSION OF NOTICE CONCERNING POTENTIAL SUP
11/21. MEAT PLANT WORKS TO RESUME U.S. SHIPMENTS
11/21. DETAILED INFORMATION ON ALLERGENS, THANKS TO THE NEW EUROPEA
11/21. CDC'S ADVICE TO DOCTORS: CLEAN YOUR HANDS
11/21. SCHOOLS CAST CAUTIOUS EYE AT IRRADIATION OK
11/21. TURKEY AMONG CULPRITS IN FOODBORNE ILLNESS
11/21. RESTAURANT FOOD SAFETY UNDER SCRUTINY; WEB SITE WOULD ALLOW
11/21. Canadian expert asks: Why won't our politicians let us buy i
11/21. Greeley beef plant reopens; 'We're satisfied with changes,'
11/21. Peanuts bad news for more and more kids
11/21. Some say deer processing a big hole in the nation's food saf
11/21. Beat the Buffet Blues this Holiday Season
11/21. Maggot find in tinned tomatoes
11/21. Food Bacteria Resistant To Cipro
11/21. So what kind of chicken is safe to eat?
11/21. Lawmakers urge certification of wine
11/21. Four arrested over bootleg rice wine in Ilan County
11/21. Bootleg rice wine set to enter market
11/20. CONSUMER EDUCATION
11/20. SUCCESS OF MEAT RECALLS VARIES, AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY EXPERTS
11/20. GRADUATE TRAINING POSITION IN THE FIELD DISEASE INVESTIGATIO
11/20. INDUSTRY URGED TO GIVE CLEAR COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELLING
11/20. KEEP FOOD CLEAN, DR. POWELL TELLS CONFERENCE
11/20. STATEMENT OF THE AMERICAN MEAT INSTITUTE ON DRAFT DIRECTIVE
11/20. Plea for greater FDA efficiency
11/20. UK: Salad dressing destroys kitchen
11/20. New USDA directive mandates 'aggressive' approach to listeria
11/20. Food labeling: information overload
11/20. Brook-Lea kitchen back in service
11/20. The ABCs of clean restaurants
11/20. Listeria Directive Unveiled
11/20. Metabolife turns over more consumer health complaints to FDA
11/20. Food safety guidance
11/20. Poultry bacteria grows resistant
11/20. Officials in Baja express confidence in region's cantaloupes
11/20. Poison risk in outdoor chickens

MULTISTATE OUTBREAKS OF SALMONELLA SEROTYPE POONA INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH
EATING CANTALOUPE FROM MEXICO --- UNITED STATES AND CANADA, 2000--2002

Nov. 22/02
MMWR 51(46);1044-1047
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5146a2.htm
Three multistate outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Poona infections associated with eating cantaloupe imported from Mexico occurred in the spring of consecutive years during 2000--2002. In each outbreak, the isolates had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns; the PFGE patterns observed in the 2000 and
2002 outbreaks were indistinguishable, but the pattern from 2001 was unique among them. Outbreaks were identified
first by the California Department of Health Services (2000 and 2001) and the Washington State Department of Health (2002) and involved residents of 12 states and Canada. This report describes the investigations, which led
ultimately to an import alert on cantaloupes from Mexico. To limit the potential for cantaloupe contamination, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continues to work with the Mexican government on a food-safety program
for the production, packing, and shipping of fresh cantaloupes. April--June 2000 Outbreak A total of 47 confirmed cases of S. Poona infections with indistinguishable PFGE patterns were identified from California (26), Washington (10), Nevada (five), New Mexico (three), Oregon (two), and Colorado (one), with illness onset occurring during April 14--June 2. The median age of ill persons was 7 years (range: 1--95 years); 28 (60%) patients were aged <10 years, and nine (19%) were aged >60 years. Twenty-four (51%) patients were male and nine (19%) were hospitalized. A matched case-control study was conducted; 20 case-patients were matched by age category to 37 community controls. A case was defined as laboratory-confirmed infection with S. Poona of the outbreak PFGE pattern in
a person with illness onset during April--June. By multivariable modeling, illness was associated only with eating cantaloupe (matched odds ratio [MOR]=6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3--34.0), with 16 (80%)
case-patients versus seven (19%) controls reporting eating cantaloupe. Cantaloupe was purchased either pre-cut or whole. April--May 2001 Outbreak In April, an initial cluster of S. Poona was identified in California.
Isolates had a rare biochemical trait, the inability to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and PFGE patterns that were indistinguishable. A total of 50 cases of H2S-negative S. Poona infections were identified in residents of
California (28), Washington (eight), Nevada (seven), Arizona (six), and Oregon (one). Demographic and illness-history data from the 28 California patients indicated that illness onset occurred during April 6--May 28. The
age distribution was bimodal; the 19 children had a median age of 3 years (range: 1--5 years) and the nine adults had a median age of 80 years (range: 39--91 years). Fifteen (54%) patients were female. Ten (36%) patients were
bacteremic; one infant girl had S. Poona isolated from a urine specimen. Nine (33%) patients were hospitalized, and two patients (a man aged 78 years and a woman aged 91 years) died with Salmonella septicemia.
A matched case-control study was conducted; 11 case-patients from California (seven), Nevada (two), Arizona (one), and Washington (one) were matched by age category to 19 community controls. Case-patients had
laboratory-confirmed infections of the outbreak strain of H2S-negative S. Poona and illness onset during the first 2 weeks of April. Illness was associated only with eating cantaloupe (MOR=7.4; 95% CI=1.0--178.0). Eight
(80%) case-patients and six (33%) controls recalled eating cantaloupe. Cantaloupe was purchased either pre-cut or whole. March--May 2002 Outbreak A total of 58 cases with S. Poona isolates with indistinguishable PFGE
patterns were identified in California (21), Washington (nine), Oregon (five), British Columbia (four), Colorado (three), Nevada (three), Manitoba (two), Missouri (two), Ontario (two), Saskatchewan (two), Texas (two),
Arkansas (one), Minnesota (one), and Vermont (one). Illness onset occurred during March 30--May 31; the median age of patients was 6 years (range: 4 months--91 years); 32 (55%) were aged <10 years, and 11 (19%) were aged >60 years. A total of 31 (55%) were female. Ten patients were hospitalized.
A matched case-control study was conducted; 27 case-patients were matched by age category to 54 community controls. A case was defined as S. Poona infection with the outbreak PFGE pattern in a person aged >2 years with
illness onset during March 15--May 3. The only exposure significantly associated with illness was eating cantaloupe; 20 (74%) case-patients recalled eating cantaloupe compared with 11 (20%) controls (MOR=15.5; 95%
CI=3.3--125.0). Case-patients (50%) were more likely than controls (13%) to eat cantaloupe purchased whole (MOR=5.8; 95% CI=1.6--23.3) or to eat cantaloupe in a fruit salad or as a garnish (28% versus 5%) (MOR=6.5; 95%
CI=1.2--63.0). No other factors were significantly associated with illness. Traceback and Regulatory Action
FDA, in conjunction with state and provincial food regulatory agencies, conducted traceback investigations of cantaloupe purchased by patients in all three outbreaks. In each instance, point-of-sale sources of cantaloupe
were traced back to shippers and then to farms in Mexico. In response to the 2000 and 2001 outbreaks, FDA conducted on-farm investigations in Mexico and concluded that measures were not in place to minimize microbial
contamination in the growing, harvesting, packaging, and cooling of cantaloupe. Possible sources of contamination include irrigation of fields with water contaminated with sewage, processing (cleaning and cooling)
produce with Salmonella-contaminated water, poor hygienic practices of workers who harvest and process the cantaloupe, pests in packing facilities, and inadequate cleaning and sanitizing of equipment that comes in contact
with cantaloupe. In association with the 2001 outbreak, FDA detained product imported by the shipper on May 31, and the shipper voluntarily recalled its imported Mexican cantaloupe. The shipper and the implicated farm in Mexico remain on detention. In association with the 2002 outbreak, the importer voluntarily recalled the implicated Mexican
cantaloupe, and FDA placed the implicated farms on detention. On October 28, 2002, FDA issued an import alert on cantaloupe from Mexico that detains all products offered for entry at all U.S. ports. Reported by: SM Anderson, MPH, Arizona Dept of Health Svcs. L Verchick, MS, Clark County Health Department, Las Vegas; R Sowadsky, MSPH, Nevada State Health Div. B Sun, DVM, R Civen, MD, JC Mohle-Boetani, MD, SB Werner, MD, M
Starr, DVM, S Abbott, M Gutierrez, M Palumbo, PhD, J Farrar, PhD, California Dept of Health Svcs. P Shillam, Colorado Dept of Health. E Umland, MD, M Tanuz, M Sewell, DrPH, J Cato, New Mexico Dept of Health. W Keene, PhD, Oregon Dept of Human Svcs. M Goldoft, MD, J Hofmann, MD, J Kobayashi, MD, P Waller, MS, Washington State Dept of Health. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the Office of Regulatory Affairs, Food and Drug
Administration. C Braden, MD, Div of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases; G Djomand, MD, M Reller, MD, W Chege, MD, EIS officers, CDC.
Editorial Note:
Salmonella infections have been linked to melons at least since 1990 when Salmonella serotype Chester traced to cantaloupe caused 245 illnesses in 30 states (1). The cantaloupe were imported from either Mexico or Guatemala. In
1991, an outbreak of cantaloupe-associated S. Poona infections caused 400 illnesses in 23 states (2). Illness was associated with eating pre-cut cantaloupe in fruit salads or from salad bars. Although industry sources identified the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas as the probable source of the implicated cantaloupe, some might have come from Mexico. In response to this outbreak, FDA conducted a microbiologic survey that isolated a variety of Salmonella serotypes from approximately 1% of sampled imported cantaloupe and watermelon (2). In 1997, an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saphra infections affected 25 persons in California. Illness was associated with cantaloupe imported from Mexico (3). After the 2000 and 2001 S. Poona outbreaks, FDA conducted farm investigations in Mexico, issued press releases to warn consumers, placed implicated farms on detention, and conducted sampling surveys of imported cantaloupe. The 1999 and 2000 FDA surveys of imported produce indicated that 5% of cantaloupe sampled (eight of 151) was contaminated with Salmonella (4). A 2001 survey of imported produce indicates that of 29 cantaloupes from Mexico tested, none yielded Salmonella, Shigella, or
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (FDA, unpublished data, 2001). The interpretation of the 2001 survey is limited
by of the small sample size. S. Poona is a relatively rare serotype that is responsible for 1% of human Salmonella isolates reported in the United States in 2001; however, of the six cantaloupe-associated Salmonella outbreaks, four were attributed to infections with S. Poona. Typically, human infection with S. Poona is associated with reptile exposure (5,6). The three outbreaks attributed to S. Poona-contaminated cantaloupe traced to Mexican farms suggest the possibility of a unique natural reservoir in the Mexican farm environment, possibly from reptiles such as iguanas drawn to feed on melon crops that enter the packing sheds and contaminate the equipment. Subsequently, water used in the washing and cooling process might spread the contamination. FDA provides information about the decontamination of melons to the retail industry, food-service establishments, and commercial processors of pre-cut
melon (7,8). The use of sodium hypochlorite or other permitted antimicrobials in combination with brushing is recommended. The potential for microbial contamination also might be reduced by using only good-quality
fruit that is free from open wounds or defects that might allow bacteria to contaminate the interior of the fruit (9). Additional research is needed to determine the effectiveness of consumer produce-washing practices. Consumers
should be sure that fresh-cut melons are refrigerated or surrounded by ice; leftover cut melons should be discarded if left at room temperature for >2 hours. Additional information for consumers is available at http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/answers/2002/ans01167.html.
On October 28, 2002, in response to the three outbreaks during 2000--2002 and analytical results from the sampling of imported Mexican cantaloupe, FDA issued an import alert that detains all cantaloupe from Mexico offered for
entry at all U.S. ports. FDA will continue to work with the Mexican government on a food-safety program for the production, packing, and shipping of fresh cantaloupe. The Mexican government is developing a
certification program based on sound agricultural and manufacturing practices that would allow FDA to identify farms that have adopted and implemented such a food-safety program.
Acknowledgments
This report is based in part on assistance and data contributed by J
Anderberg, Food Safety Program, Washington State Dept of Health. S Stenzel,
K Smith, Minnesota Dept of Health. B Labus, P Rowley, Clark County Health
District, Las Vegas, Nevada. S Schoenfeld, Vermont Dept of Health. L Gaul,
Texas Dept of Health. S Isaacs, A Ellis, Health Canada, Ottawa; M Fyfe,
British Columbia Center for Disease Control, Vancouver; H Bangura,
Saskatchewan Health, Regina, Canada. J Varma, J Painter, Div of Bacterial
and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for
Infectious Diseases, CDC.
References
1.Ries AA, Zaza S, Langkop C, et al. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella
Chester linked to imported cantaloupe [Abstract]. In: Programs and abstracts
of the 30th Interscience
Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC:
American Society for Microbiology, 1990.
2.CDC. Epidemiologic notes and reports: multistate outbreak of Salmonella
Poona infections---United States and Canada, 1991. MMWR 1991;40:549--52.
3.Mohle-Boetani JC, Reporter R, Werner SB, et al. An outbreak of Salmonella
serogroup Saphra due to cantaloupes from Mexico. J Infect Dis
1999;180:1361--4.
4.Food and Drug Administration. FDA survey of imported fresh produce: FY
1999 field assignment. Available at
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsur6.html.
5.Reporter R, Bendana N, Sato H, et al. Rare serotypes of Salmonella
associated with iguana exposure [abstract 1460]. In: Program and Abstracts
of the 33rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and
Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1999.
6.Woodward DL, Khakhria R, Johnson WM. Human salmonellosis associated with
exotic pets. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:2786--90.
7.National Archives and Records Administration. Code of Federal
Regulations. Title 21, Part 173: secondary direct food additives permitted
in food for human consumption. Revised April 2002. Available at
http://www.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/cfrassemble.cgi?title=200221.
8.Food and Drug Administration. Produce safety at retail: safe handling
practices for melons. Available at
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ear/ret-mln.html.
9.Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for industry: guide to minimize
microbial food safety hazards for fresh fruits and vegetables, 1998.
Available at
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodguid.html.

Outbreak List

11/22. CAUSE OF E COLI CASES STUMPS OFFICIALS
11/22. 114 WORKERS GO DOWN WITH FOOD POISONING AT FACTORY IN VIETNA
11/22. TALES OF STOWAWAY VIRUS AND A QUEASY CRUISE
11/22. SICK CRUISE -
11/22. MULTISTATE OUTBREAKS OF SALMONELLA POONA INFECTIONS
11/22. Bacterial illnesses up in Duval
11/22. Shigellosis outbreak growing in Cumberland County
11/21. Health Department Concerned About Shigellosis Outbreak
11/21. Recent increase in bacterial illnesses prompt alert
11/21. Health officials investigate apparent food poisoning
11/20. Person tests positive for E. coli bacteria at Prince Edward
11/18. E. COLI O157:H7: PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND

Food Recall News

11/22. Georgia Ag Reports Swiss-American Havarti Cheese Recall
11/21. New Jersey company recalling 4.2 million pounds of possibly
11/21. New Jersey Firm Expands Recall Of Poultry Products For Possible Listeria
11/21. Jack Lambersky widens poultry recall due to listeria
11/21. Wal-Mart recalls cheese for possible contamination
11/21. Undeclared wheat in NO NAME brand CLUB PACK BARBECUE flavour potato chips
11/21. Amport Foods Orchard Reserve Dried Apricots Recalled Due to Undeclared Sulfites
11/21. Ashdon Farms Has Recalled Some Chocolate Covered Candy Products Nov 20
11/21. Puerto Rico Firm Recalls Pork Shoulder Products For Possible Listeria Contamination
11/21. Arkansas Firm Recalls Frozen Beef Products Because Of Incorrect Ingredient Label
11/20. Girl Scout/Ashdon Farms Chocolate Covered Raisins Recalled
11/19. Pennsylvania Firm Has Recalled Pork Products Nov 19
11/19. Washington DC Store Has Recalled Ground Beef Products Nov 18
11/19. Pennsylvania Firm Has Recalled Ground Beef Products Nov 18
11/19. Pennsylvania Firm Recalls Pork Products For Possible Salmonella Contamination

New Methods

11/20. IBCI Enters into Second Phase of Testing with Global Food an
11/20. Quantitative measurement of Bovine Lactoferrin
11/19. Research: Plant extracts shield food

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