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8/5
2010
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2010 Food Safety Training Class Schedule
Basic and Advanced HACCP San Francisco, CA, August 2 - 4
Basic HACCP Houston TX , August 16 and 17
Basic HACCPChicago, IL, August 30 and 31
Basic HACCPLos Angeles, CA. September 9 and 10
Basic HACCPCamden, New Jersey, September 13 and 14
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ISO22000
Redondo Beach, CA, November 4-5, 2010
with 5th International Conference

Basic HACCPChicago, IL. November 29 and 30
Basic HACCPLos Angeles, CA, December 6 and 7
Basic HACCPVisalia, CA, December 13 and 14

DeLauro Introduces Meat Testing, Traceability Bill
Source: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/07/delauro-introduces-meat-testing-traceability-bill/
by Helena Bottemiller | Jul 30, 2010
Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro (D-CT), a longtime advocate for more stringent food safety laws, introduced a bill yesterday with the "goal of completely eradicating the dangerous Shiga toxin-producing E. coli bacteria."
The E. coli Traceability and Eradication Act would set stricter testing procedures for meat companies and establish a tracking procedure to allow the U.S. Department of Agriculture to implement faster recalls in the event that contaminated meat is discovered.
According to DeLauro's office, the bill would apply to slaugherhouses and grinding facilites, requiring firms to test ground beef and beef trim multiple times throughout the manufacturing process. All testing would be conducted by an independent, USDA-certified testing facility, including 'beef trim,' leftover pieces from larger cuts of meat commonly used in ground beef.
"Should any facilities be producing products that are unsafe for either three consecutive days or ten days throughout a year, the company named will be posted to a list of safety offenders with the USDA," according to a statement from DeLauro's office.
The legislation would also set a tracing protocol, allowing the USDA to more easily track the source of contaminated meat by looking up the supply chain.
"This will allow USDA to recall products more quickly and prevent additional illnesses during an outbreak," said DeLauro. "Our current food safety system is not doing its job-- contaminated meat is still hitting the shelves, and people are still getting sick. This legislation will establish higher standards for food safety and protect the public health."
Senator Kirsten Gilibrand (D-NY) introduced a similar bill last fall and has since pressured the USDA to regulated non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

Non-O157:H7 E coli Gets International Attention
Source: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/08/non-o157h7-e-coli-gets-international-attention/
by Dan Flynn | Aug 04, 2010
ANAHEIM--A truly international panel of experts on "the significance and detection of STEC or Non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli" did not even get around to expressing opinions on whether any non-O157 E. coli strains should be defined as "adulterants" in meat during a session at yesterday's International Association for Food Protection (IAFP) meeting.
If anything, thought, the speakers at the IAFP seem to be saying it might have been a mistake to have focused solely on E. coli O157:H7 for about 15 years because as many as 250 other strains of E. coli went for too long without much notice.
Pina Fratamico, with USDA's Agricultural Research Station at the University of Georgia in Athens, said that while E. coli O157 infects about 73,000 people annually according to data complied by the federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, the other shiga toxin-producing E coli account for about 37,000 illnesses.
She said that between the year 2000 and 2006, the number of illnesses due to these E. coli increased by about four times, from 0.12 per 100,000 to 0.42 per 100,000.
Most of the world is dealing with the E. coli O26, O111, and O145 strains of E. coli, according to Fratamico. There is some variance by country around the world, but E. coli O103, O121, and O45 that fill out the list of the top six in the United States are pretty much impacting the globe.
Since 1984, she said there have been 101 outbreaks of non-O157:H7 E. coli around the world, and 30 of those have been in the United States. The most recent was the E. coli O145 outbreak associated with romaine lettuce.
Alex Gill with Health Canada questioned whether from a diagnostic and treatment approach it would be better just to focus on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, period, and not specific strains.
In the United States, only E. coli O157:H7 has been classified as an "adulterant" in meat. Attorney Bill Marler, on behalf of clients infected with other strains of the pathogen, has petitioned USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service to make the top 6 non-O157 strains adulterants in meat as well.
FSIS has not yet ruled on the petition.
The international panel at IAFP agreed the non-O157 E. coli strains are an "important threat" to public health around the world.
IAFP concludes its meetings today in Anaheim.



Farmers in Denmark adjust to livestock antibiotic ban
Source: http://www.desmoinesregister.com/article/20100801/BUSINESS01/8010347/
Denmark is to hogs in Europe what Iowa is in the United States. So the Danes can provide lessons for U.S. farmers and the Obama administration when it comes to restricting the use of antibiotics on hog farms.
The nation banned the use of antibiotics for growth promotion in hogs in the 1990s, a step that the Obama administration is proposing for U.S. farms. That move cut antibiotic use by 40 percent.
Denmark next halted the use of antibiotics for anything other than treating ill animals. Farms could no longer give antibiotics to young pigs to prevent them from getting ill, a practice that became common decades ago in the United States and Europe as pigs were weaned earlier so farms could get as many litters as possible from their sows.
The second restriction resulted in an actual increase in total antibiotic use as farmers found themselves treating more sick pigs, a fact that's often cited by the U.S. industry in arguing against restrictions on the drugs' use.

Danish farmers have been forced to make changes in their operations, including keeping newborn pigs with their mothers for a week longer, to try to protect them from getting ill.
Still, antibiotic usage has increased in recent years faster than hog production has grown, a Danish food safety official told a U.S. House committee recently.
Per Henriksen, a veterinarian, told the panel the government is flagging farms that exceed a certain level of antibiotics and requiring them to cut back.

Kaj Munck, who produces 10,000 hogs a year near Copenhagen, says raising pigs with his country's antibiotic restrictions requires paying more attention to the pigs' health and feed than farmers did previously.
That means checking for sick animals daily. Barn floors are heated in the winter to keep the animals warm. Pigs are weaned at 28 days rather than the previous 21. Pigs are more susceptible to disease the earlier they are weaned.
Munck has had mixed success with alternatives to drugs as growth promoters. He's tried both probiotics, products that can replace one form of bacteria with another, and zinc oxide.

"When the ban came I was very much against it," Munck said at a briefing for congressional aides arranged by the Pew on Human Health and Industrial Farming, an advocacy group. "Now, I think it's one of the best things that has happened to the Danish farmers. Today it's more interesting taking care of pigs."
The number of farms in Denmark has fallen from 35,000 in 1998 to 6,000 today, while production has risen nearly 20 percent.
Denmark has about 27 million hogs, compared with about 20 million in Iowa.

DeLauro Introduces E. Coli Traceability and Eradication Act
Source: http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/2010/08/articles/food-policy-regulation/
Posted on August 2, 2010 by Bill Marler
New legislation will strengthen food safety measures, protect consumers
Washington, DC ? Congresswoman Rosa L. DeLauro (CT-3) introduced the E. coli Traceability and Eradication Act today, which will require stricter testing procedures for meat and processing facilities with the goal of completely eradicating the dangerous Shiga toxin-producing E. coli bacteria, and establishing a tracking procedure that will enable the USDA to implement faster recalls should any be found to be contaminated.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli are bacterial pathogens similar to E. coli O157, the most commonly known and reported strain. It causes the same type of illness, and can be found in processed meat, ground beef, and can be transferred to other food products such as packaged lettuce. By implementing stricter and more comprehensive testing of meat, slaughterhouses, and grinding facilities, this critical legislation will ensure that our food supply is safer. The bill will require that these facilities to test ground beef and beef trim multiple times throughout the manufacturing process by an independent, USDA-certified testing facility, including ¡®beef trim,¡¯ leftover pieces from larger cuts of meat commonly used in ground beef, that have not previously been subject to analysis.
Should any facilities be producing products that are unsafe for either three consecutive days or ten days throughout a year, their company named will be posted to a list of safety offenders with the USDA. Additionally, the legislation will create a tracing protocol that will enable the USDA to track any contaminated meat or meat products, leading to faster recalls and less hazard to consumers. For facilities that are found to be producing contaminated meat, the USDA will test their products for 15 consecutive days following the positive test.
¡°By the end of this year, an estimated 57,000 people will have been made ill from E. coli, which represents an astounding failure on the part of our food safety system. We must do more to address the dangers American consumers face on a daily basis from these hidden killers, and ensure that the food entering the marketplace, our homes, and even our schools, is safe.
¡°This legislation will require rigorous new testing standards, calling for multiple examinations of products and specifically testing for all Shiga toxin-producing E. coli bacteria. And should test results reveal E. coli contamination, this bill will require slaughter facilities to report it to USDA immediately. Also, because this bill will require processors to test incoming beef trim, it would cease the current industry practice of processors being blackballed by their suppliers.
¡°Another important component of this bill is that, when E. coli is detected at a facility, it would require USDA to establish a traceback procedure all the way back to the original source of the contamination. This will allow USDA to recall products more quickly and prevent additional illnesses during an outbreak. Our current food safety system is not doing its job? contaminated meat is still hitting the shelves, and people are still getting sick. This legislation will establish higher standards for food safety and protect the public health.¡±

If only laws could truly eradicate E coli
Richard Raymond
Source: http://www.meatingplace.com/MembersOnly/blog/BlogDetail.aspx?blogID=10
We all know about Congresswoman DeLauro¡¯s (D-Conn.) press release introducing a bill that would increase testing of beef, etc, as reported and discussed at Meatingplace.com last Friday.
Much of the discussion that followed the story focused on some rather silly statements made in the release, such as eradication of E coli entirely and the statement that 50,000 Americans are sickened from E coli every year, a number I have not seen before.
Disregarding the discussion about her IQ, etc, the real ¡°meat¡± of the press release is that the chairwoman is intent upon trying to increase the safety of beef in this country, and feels Legislation is necessary because industry and the USDA are not doing their jobs effectively. She even makes the comment that requiring processors to test all incoming beef, ¡°would cease the current industry practice of processors being blackballed by their suppliers.¡±
Two other key issues that she is trying to address are testing for and removing from commerce all STECs, not just E coli 0157:H7, and mandating that USDA develop a system to effectively trace contamination back to the source when product tests positive at the processing plant. These are not new discussion points, but I guess the Congresswoman has tired of discussing with no action. And by the way, the trace back portion of her bill closely resembles S 3163, Senator Tester¡¯s trace back Bill.
FSIS, the pressure is mounting to get something happening.
Don¡¯t get me wrong. I have repeatedly stated that Congress does a horrible job when it comes to writing laws that make sense for food safety. The farm bill and catfish comes to mind, along with the fact that congress will MANDATE that FDA does risk based inspection, while the same congress (DeLauro) has statutorily PROHIBITED FSIS from doing risk based inspection. Why this contradiction? Because FSIS is heavily populated by bargaining unit members and FDA is not.
Something must be done to show DeLauro that FSIS and the industry can get it right. For starters, FSIS, how about having a public conference to discuss where we are at with Bill Marler¡¯s petition to make all shiga toxin producing E coli adulterants?
We hear that lab tests need to be developed by USDA¡¯s Ag Research Service first. But ARS developed testing for bird flu in poultry in less than a year and for melamine in poultry and pork in less than six months. Why the delay for this?
The numbers of people with non-0157 E coli illnesses is rising every year. What number is needed to create a sense of crisis?
I do not like what I read when I read DeLauro¡¯s full press release, but I do like her intent.
Can we get this right and do it ourselves, or will we sit by and let congress once again write a law we will find difficult to live with?
August 2, 2010

Will DeLauro¡¯s bill eradicate E. coli in raw ground beef?
Source: http://www.meatingplace.com/MembersOnly/blog/BlogDetail.aspx?blogID=11
James Marsden
Last week, Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) introduced a bill intended to reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin producing stains of E. coli in raw ground beef.
The bill requires multiple tests during beef slaughter and ground beef production for all Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. It also requires the establishment of a USDA system for traceability of raw material sources when contamination occurs.
Under the provisions of the bill, beef processors would be required to report positive findings to USDA. A positive result would trigger additional USDA tests for the next 15 consecutive days of production. If an establishment has three consecutive days with positive results or ten positive tests over a year period, it would be placed on a USDA list of ¡°safety offenders.¡±
I believe that this bill is well meaning and if enacted would have the benefit of requiring more testing at slaughter plants and at plants that receive beef trimmings for further processing. Since testing of trimmings would become a requirement, small and very small grinders in all areas of the country would be allowed to test incoming raw materials without fear of retribution from their suppliers.
The bill is flawed
One major problem will this bill is that it still places too much focus on the wrong end of the process. E. coli contamination does not occur during ground beef manufacturing. It occurs upstream during or immediately after the slaughter process. Increasing the frequency of testing alone will not solve the problem. On the other hand, if carcasses were free of E. coli O157:H7, the problem would be solved and there would be no need for this bill.
Since 1993, when Undersecretary for Food Safety Michael Taylor declared E. coli O157:H7 to be an adulterant in raw ground beef (but not carcasses or beef trim), regulatory focus has been wrongly directed to grinders. Congresswoman DeLauro¡¯s bill makes the same mistake. If a grinder has 10 or more positives in a year, it simply means that the plant was unlucky enough to buy contaminated trimmings that showed up in product test results. It really has little to do with what occurred during the grinding process.
So the question is ? will this bill eradicate E. coli in raw ground or even make it safer for consumers? The answer is a qualified ¡°no¡±. If enacted, the increased testing of beef trimmings at slaughter plants would encourage the implementation of more effective interventions. It would also push grinders to implement their own E. coli interventions. Both of these actions would reduce risks for consumers, but would not fully address the root cause of the probelm - the need for pasteurized beef carcasses.

Can¡¯t test to safety

Another major problem is an overemphasis on testing. Eradication of E. coli will require some form of pasteurization technology. The most logical step towards eradication of E coli would be to require that beef carcasses be pasteurized using validated interventions. The pasteurization process could be verified using robust microbiological testing of carcasses and trim. E. coli free carcasses would translate into E. coli free ground beef.
Perhaps the bill can be modified as it moves through the congressional process. If it is enacted in its present form, it would prove to be very costly and would further punish grinders for contamination that is out of their control. It would only marginally impact the real objectives ? the reduction of consumer risks and ultimately the elimination of harmful strains of E. coli from ground beef and other beef products.
If we are going to see legislation designed to eradicate E. coli, let¡¯s get it right and solve this probelm once and for all.
August 02, 2010

Flour Investigated as E. coli Source
Source: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/08/test-hold-for-e-coli-might-not-work-for-flour/
by Dan Flynn | Aug 03, 2010
ANAHEIM-- If you test enough flour you can find some contaminated by the potentially deadly pathogen--E. coli O157:H7--but testing probably is not going to do much when it comes to making flour safe to eat.
So concluded three speakers--Cargill's Joe Shebuski, Nestle's Tim Jackson, and ConAgra's Ben Warren--who Monday addressed the International Association of Food Protection (IAFP) on flour food safety.
Flour, a food staple for at least the last 1,000 years, emerged as a "new" potential carrier of pathogens like E. coli and Salmonella last year when Nestle's raw cookie dough was blamed for infecting 72 people in 30 states with O157:H7.
With little previous research to go on, Nestle put five laboratories to work to find E. coli O157:H7 in flour. It took 30 samples from each of 1,074 lots for a total of 32,220 batches that were all put to the test.
One sample for an incidence rate of 0.003 percent returned positive for E. coli O157:H7. That was about one hundred times less than incidence rates for Salmonella found in previous studies.
"I think it is important that these kind of findings get shared around the industry," said Shebuski. He said Nestle deserves credit for disclosing their research findings with the conference. The company is providing a technical briefing on the research on Wednesday.
A questioner asked Jackson how enough cookie dough could have become contaminated if E. coli O157:H7 was found so rarely and in such low levels. Jackson said the research did not lead to a "root cause" for the 2009 outbreak. He did say the flour was the only ingredient not cleared at the supplier level.
Since flour comes from milling wheat, Shebuski said it's long been known growing something in an open environment carries with it risks from pests to pathogens. He said past research showed the incidence of Salmonella in flour was 1.32 percent in 1957, and then it declined dramatically to 0.14 percent in 1989.
No comparable work had been done on E. coli until Nestle took on the project.
With the pathogens being found so rarely in flour, and with the bulk nature of the product, Shebuski said "test and hold" is not a realistic safety program for flour. He said monitoring, HACCP plans, and perhaps looking at more controls on wheat growers and agricultural practices could make sense.
Pathogens in flour are usually rendered harmless by baking, frying, or boiling.
Consumer habits, however, are ever changing. ConAgra's Warren said the company was surprised to learn some people are eating raw frozen pizzas. "We actually had somebody in the company who admitted to doing this," he said.
It was the common consumer practice of eating bites of raw cookie dough that led to the Nestle E. coli outbreak. Warren is expecting more demand for "heat-treated" flour, the kind now used by Nestle.
A ConAgra analysis found potential demand for 25 million hundred weight of flour for uses that might require "heat treatment." Warren said there are a number of technologies for heat-treating, including hydrothermal, turbo, drum drying, and others.
He said E-beam radiation might work, but ConAgra found it left an "off-odor" that probably would not be acceptable to most.
The four-day IAFP annual meeting continues through Wednesday.

Phages gain traction as food safety tools
MeatPoultry.com, August 3, 2010
by Steve Bjerklie
Source: http://www.meatpoultry.com/
According to legend and tradition, a wade into the River Ganges or a dip into the waters at Lourdes will cure the sick and infirm, especially those suffering from infectious diseases such as leprosy and cholera. But, in fact, there¡¯s some truth in the story ? and the reason why may become one of the most important food-safety tools for meat packers and processors.
Certain waters contain a super-abundance of phages, viruses that are the natural enemies of bacteria. Indeed, phages, which were formally called bacteriophages, are thought to be the most-widely distributed and diverse organisms in the entire biosphere, according to the book ¡°Bacteriophage: Genetics and Molecular Biology,¡± edited by McGrath and van Sinderen, and the study of phages has helped scientists understand the basic building blocks of life. They¡¯re found everywhere, from the human gut to sea water ? in short, where there are bacteria, there are phages.
¡°The collective biomass of phages is more than the collective biomass of all humans put together,¡± said Dirk de Meester, director of business development at EBI Food Safety in the Netherlands. ¡°They¡¯re the most omnipresent organism on the planet. Their estimated number is 10 to the 32nd power, an incomprehensible amount.¡±
What phages mean for meat packers and processors, he observes, is a simple fact: They ¡°harness the power of nature to get rid of what you don¡¯t want.¡±
The ¡®Borg¡¯
The discovery of phages occurred about the same time as the discovery of antibiotics, but due to some poorly performed phage experiments, Western medicine generally came to favor antibiotics as an infectious disease therapy, though phages were commonly used medicinally in the former Soviet Union and still in present-day Russia. Phages are vicious attackers of bacteria: lytic cycle phages break open and destroy cells to replicate the phage virus, which then hunts down new hosts; lysogenic cycle phages merge with a host cell¡¯s DNA to replicate, a kind of microscopic ¡°Borg.¡±
Though knowledge of phages goes back more than 100 years to early research conducted at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, the Brown Institution in London and elsewhere ? Sinclair Lewis¡¯s 1926 novel ¡°Arrowsmith¡± mentions phages as a therapeutic agent ? the use of phages as a food-safety tool has come entirely in the 21st century. The Food and Drug Administration first approved use of phages in a food application in the U.S. in 2006 to control Listeria monocytogenes in cheese. The following year, the F.D.A. broadened the approval to include all FDA-regulated foods.
The U.S.D.A. has followed suit, and two phages currently on the market, EBI¡¯s Listex (distributed in the U.S. by World Technology Ingredients, or WTI) and Elanco Food Solutions¡¯s Finalyse, are both approved for meat applications. Both products have limited application ? but that¡¯s their benefit. Phages are developed to destroy specific types and strains of bacteria: Listex targets Listeria and Finalyse, which is a pre-harvest tool, targets E. coli O157:H7 on cattle hides.
Pre-harvest, post-processing
¡°We think phages are the most elegant way to control pathogenic bacteria,¡± commented Mr. de Meester. ¡°It¡¯s using the system nature has already developed to control bacteria, which would go wild if there weren¡¯t phages. Really, all we are doing is taking this natural tool and directing its energy toward a specific pathogen that¡¯s been a problem in foods. Listex targets Listeria specifically, and generally likes similar conditions.¡±
Elanco¡¯s Dr. Patrick Mies, the company¡¯s beef technical consultant for food safety, describes use of phages as a ¡°novel¡± food-safety intervention, meaning it¡¯s different from any kind of food-safety tool seen or used before. He emphasizes, however, that Finalyse is but one tool in a food-safety toolbox that packers should be taking advantage of. ¡°Since there is no single food-safety intervention that acts as a ¡®silver bullet,¡¯ a pre-harvest intervention such as Finalyse enables post-harvest interventions to work more effectively,¡± he said.
For example, Finalyse used in conjunction with Elanco¡¯s BoviBrom carcass wash, will provide a 2.5-3.5 log reduction in E. coli numbers, according to the company. ¡°The entire beef chain has been very focused on ? and has invested heavily in ? pre-harvest, food-safety interventions, and Finalyse is the first hide wash for live cattle that reduces the level of food-borne pathogens at the processing facility,¡± he added.
Dr. Aimee Belanger, a senior scientist for food safety at Elanco, noted that any single kind of phage targeting E. coli O157:H7 may not be active against all strains of the organism that are found on cattle hides, so ¡°Finalyse contains a mixture of phages that, when combined, are effective against nearly all of the E. coli O157:H7 strains found on beef cattle,¡± she said.
EBI¡¯s Listex is designed for in-plant topical treatment on processed products ? on frankfurters emerging from the peeler, for example. ¡°It really protects the entire exposed process,¡± said Mr. de Meester. Processors can expect a 1-3 log kill ? ¡°and as far as Listeria monocytogenes is concerned, that¡¯s enough.¡± The potent product is added in tiny amounts, no more than 0.006 parts per million. Mr. De Meester said Listex adds no organoleptic qualities or off-flavors and will not reduce processed meat quality. Like Mr. Mies and Ms. Belanger, he emphasized the need to combine a phage tool with other food-safety tools. ¡°The starting point has to be a clean plant. No intervention gives an excuse to work dirty, nor does the specific targeting of Listeria allow for this.¡±
Could the phages get loose and run wild in meat operations that, unlike packinghouses, actually want bacteria to be present ? processors of fermented salami, for example? No, because phages are absolutely species-specific. The only phages a bacteria-using processor would need to worry about are naturally occurring phages that attack specific beneficial bacteria, and even if such phages colonized a processing plant, it¡¯s easy to replenish the supply of beneficial bacteria from industry sources.
Industry acceptance
Acceptance of phages in the packing and processing industry so far has been slow but steady. ¡°Let¡¯s face it, meat processors are a traditional market. They need to see the proof that something¡¯s effective before they go all in,¡± said Mr. de Meester. ¡°But in our experience, the more people know about phages, the cooler phages seem. They¡¯re such an elegant food-safety tool.¡±
Mr. Mies and Ms. Belanger report that Finalyse, which was introduced to the market last year, has been well received by cattlemen and packinghouse yard personnel. Already, about one in four head of cattle processed in the U.S. are treated with Finalyse. The next step for the company is a Salmonella-specific phage for poultry growers and processors.

Outbreak of bacterial illness near Hebgen Lake sickens at least 80
Source: http://www.bozemandailychronicle.com/news/article_c1dfe1d6-9c5f-11df-b7eb-001cc4c002e0.html
Posted: Saturday, July 31, 2010 12:00 am | Updated: 10:55 pm, Fri Jul 30, 2010.
By LAUREN RUSSELL Chronicle Staff Writer |
Contaminated well water from a resort near Hebgen Lake is being blamed for the stomach and intestinal maladies plaguing more than 80 people, public health officials said Friday.
The Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services has confirmed 14 cases of campylobacter gastrointestinal illness, a common GI ailment that can cause diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain and fever.
At least 70 more cases are probably caused by the same bacteria, the officials said.
"(Campylobacter) is one of the most common, if not the most common, gastrointestinal illnesses in the U.S.," said Matt Kelley, health officer for the Gallatin City-County Health Department. "What was unusual about this one was we were seeing over a dozen, maybe two-dozen cases (last) Thursday and Friday."
Officials think contaminated water from one of two wells at the Campfire Lodge Resort, located outside West Yellowstone, is to blame.
The suspect well has been shut off, and the resort's restaurant has been closed, Kelley said.
Until further testing can be completed, the Montana Department of Environmental Quality has issued a boil order for all water being used at the resort. People can also purchase bottled water to use instead.
The DEQ, Gallatin City-County Health Department, Madison County Health Department and state health department will continue to monitor water quality in the area, as well as the health of those infected, officials said Friday.
Health officials were alerted to the problem late last week, when a higher-than-average number of cases of campylobacteriosis were reported around the Hebgen Lake area, Kelley said.
Many of those cases came from Madison Valley Medical Center, Kelley said, where some people were admitted for dehydration.
Public health nurses were dispatched to the area to collect information from patients to try to pinpoint the source of the illnesses. On Tuesday, sanitarians with the health department and the DEQ arrived to survey the well.
Epidemiology data, combined with the results of the water sample, led to the identification of the one of two private wells that services the Campfire Lodge Resort as the source of the contamination, he said.
Tim Roark, environmental health director with the county health department, said that there are many ways water can be contaminated with campylobacter, but this incident was probably caused by a leak in the resort's well.
The restaurant will remain closed until the source of the contamination is identified and completely eliminated, Kelley said.
"We're working collaboratively with the restaurant owners to figure out a plan to open up the restaurant in a safe way," he said.
Illness from campylobacteriosis can occur as early as one day, or as late as 10 days, after exposure to the organism. The illness typically lasts a week.
Kelley said that people who think they may be sick should see a doctor or other health care provider.
In 2009, 164 cases of campylobacteriosis were reported in Montana. So far in 2010, about 100 cases have been confirmed, not all from this outbreak.




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