List of Newsletters
To subscribe this Food Safety Newsletter,
New rules give
FDA more power to block unsafe food
By Robert Roos (05, May, 2011)
The US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) says two new regulations to take effect in July will give the
agency more power to detain unsafe food and identify potentially hazardous
The regulations are the first to be issued by the FDA under new authorities
it gained with passage of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in January,
the agency said in an announcement yesterday.
The first rule will allow the FDA to "administratively detain food
the agency believes has been produced under insanitary or unsafe conditions,"
the statement said. Previously the FDA could detain food only when it
"had credible evidence that a food product presented was contaminated
or mislabeled in a way that presented a threat of serious adverse health
consequences or death to humans or animals."
The new rule empowers the FDA to hold food products for up to 30 days,
giving time to determine if it should seize the products or seek a court
order blocking their distribution.
Under the old rules the FDA has often worked with states to detain food
products under state authority until federal enforcement action could
be launched in a federal court, the agency said.
"This authority strengthens significantly the FDA's ability to
keep potentially harmful food from reaching U.S. consumers," FDA
Deputy Commissioner for Foods Mike Taylor said in the news release.
"It is a prime example of how the new food safety law allows FDA
to build prevention into our food safety system."
The second rule requires anyone importing food or animal feed into the
United States to tell the FDA if any country has blocked importation
of the same product. This requirement will give the agency more information
about imported foods, improving its ability to target foods that may
be hazardous, officials said.
The new reporting requirement will be administered through the FDA's
existing system requiring prior notice of incoming shipments of imported
food, established under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism
Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.
"The new information on imports can help the FDA make better-informed
decisions in managing the potential risks of imported food entering
the United States," Taylor said. He added that the FDA will add
a series of further new rules for both domestic and imported foods later
this year and next year.
Both new regulations are scheduled to take effect Jul 3, but the FDA
will accept comments on them until Aug 3, according to notices published
today in the Federal Register.
Safety Modernization Act Part 1-6 (Video)
Import Requirements and Compliance: Part 1
Import Requirements and Compliance: Part 2
Import Requirements and Compliance: Part 3
Import Requirements and Compliance: Part 4
Import Requirements and Compliance: Part 5
Import Requirements and Compliance: Part 6
GAPs Awareness to Action: Pre-Harvest
here to see video (Wait for 40-50 sec. after
Condition and Cleanliness of Food Contact
here to see video (Wait for 40-50 sec. after
Organisms in the Citrus Industry:
Methods, Challenges and Prevention
here to see the slides (Wait for 40-50 sec.
O111 A threat Abroad and Here in U.S.
By David Babcock (05, May, 2011)
New reports link a fourth
death to an outbreak of E. coli O111 in Japan. E. coli O111 is one of
a number of pathogenic strains of the E. coli bacteria. The most notorious
of such strains is E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O111 and other shiga-toxin
producing strains of E. coli, however, are more than capable of causing
serious illness, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and death.
Alarmingly, non-O157:H7 strains of E. coli are not currently considered
adulterants by the USDA. Marler Clark has been waiting for more than
a year and a half for a response to its petition to the USDA to regulate
six of the most common non-O157:H7 strains.
Here in the U.S. E. coli O111 was the culprit in a very large restaurant
based outbreak in Oklahoma in 2008. Here is a summary of one of the
hundreds of persons sickened in that outbreak, Shiloh Johnson, one of
those petitioning the USDA for change:
Shiloh Johnson developed bloody diarrhea, and was hospitalized on August
22, 2008. Once admitted, Shiloh's stool sample was tested and subsequently
cultured positive for E. coli O111. Immediately after the start of the
hospitalization, she began to suffer from hemolytic uremic syndrome
(HUS). Her kidneys failed and her red blood cell and platelet counts
plummeted. With a complete loss of kidney function, she required dialysis
to survive. She was placed on continuous renal replacement therapy.
Forty-eight hours into the
dialysis treatment, disaster struck. Shiloh developed a significant
pericardial effusion (fluid around the heart) with tamponade (stoppage
of blood flow caused by fluid). She went into cardiorespiratory arrest.
She was endotrachoeally intubated and the pericardial fluid was drained.
She was given a round of epinephrine, and the arrest was reversed. Shiloh
remained on a ventilator through September 12. Soon, the area around
her lungs also became inundated with fluid, necessitating the placement
of chest tubes.
Throughout this time, Shiloh experienced full renal failure. She received
dialysis treatment around the clock. On September 10, her doctors placed
a periotoneal catheter and switched her to peritoneal dialysis. The
dialysis continued through September 27. She was finally discharged
on October 3. By this point, her medical bills amounted to $450,000.
USDA, it's time to make a change.
What is the "Future
of Food" without Food Safety?
By Bill Marler (07, May, 2011)
I attended the Future of
Food Conference in Washington D.C. this last week and was amazed by
the speakers that author, Eric Schlosser, and the Washington Post put
together. From Lucas Benitez, Co-Founder, Coalition of Immokalee Workers
to Michael R. Taylor, Deputy Commissioner for Foods at the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration, Wendell Berry, Author, Secretary of Agriculture,
Tom Vilsack, Will Allen, Founder and CEO of Growing Power Inc. and even
The Prince of Wales popped in only days after the wedding of the century
for the keynote address.
It was truly, an impressive list of speakers with a deep commitment
to issues surrounding the future of food, and with a clear commitment
to a vision of small, organic agriculture. The discussions ranged from
workers rights to GMOs, from frozen vegetables to global warming. Obesity
was also discussed along with the trend of booming backyard gardens.
Sustainability was the catchword of the day along with going local,
organic farming and the ever present mantra, "know your farmer,
know your food." Lunch was served family style touting local, organic
agriculture - meat and vegetables. White House Chef Sam Kass shared
recipes as some in the audience gushed how hot (not temperature) the
President's Chef was.
Food safety, in the broadest sense of food security (ending hunger)
and healthfulness (being against processed foods), was discussed by
many of the speakers - clearly, important issues that impact billions
worldwide. However, food safety as I live it was not on the agenda.
In fact, the only time it was discussed was when Barbara Kowlazcyk (mother
profiled in Food Inc. who lost her son to E. coli O157:H7) asked one
of the panels of speakers about food safety as she lives it. The response
is the same response that I hear often - "know your farmer, know
your food" - "if you can look your farmer in the eye, you
know the food is safe." To me it is not a satisfactory answer to
Barbara and the 48,000,000 Americans that are sickened, the 125,000
hospitalized and the 3,000 deaths that occur each year with a foodborne
True, in two decades of litigating foodborne illness cases in nearly
every state, the vast majority of the victims were linked to mass-produced
food and/or local food that had been consolidated and further processed.
However, it might also be that mass-produced food outbreaks are simply
easier to catch due too the numbers sickened, and that many outbreaks
that get our attention cut across state borders.
Perhaps, local, sustainable, organic, non-GMO agriculture does in fact
sicken less people, but, then again, perhaps not. Perhaps because the
illnesses are fewer in numbers and localized, they are also not as easily
linked. The reality - from a bacteria's or viruses' perspective - is
that local food can become contaminated between the farmer you know,
and the fork you put in your mouth, just as easily as sharing a meal
at a chain restaurant, buying Salinas salad, Nebraska beef, Arkansas
chicken or Chinese Tilapia. Bacteria or viruses simply do not make the
I am not quite sure why food safety at the Future of Food Conference
was a topic to be ignored. Was it because it is a painful topic? Really,
who wants to deal with the facts that something as good a local grass-fed,
organic raw milk could have Campylobacter in it that would cause a mom
to become paralyzed due to Guillain-Barre Syndrome? Or, was it because
there is a belief in "foodie" or "foodiest" communities
that if food is local, sustainable, organic and non-GMO it is by definition
safe? I recall an email I received from a well-known writer shortly
after a famous, local, grass-fed, organic raw milk cheese producer was
linked to eight E. coli O157:H7 illnesses. The writer was perplexed
that the cheese maker could have done such a thing given that those
sorts of things only happen to mega-food manufacturers. His belief simply
did not conform to his reality.
The movement represented at the Future of Food Conference ignores food
safety at its peril. The movement has an opportunity to embrace food
safety as yet another distinguishing feature of its brand of "real
food." Accepting that foodborne pathogens exist and need not be
in our food does not detract from believing that food is safer if you
"know your farmer, know your food." I would simply add, "trust,
Talking about food safety does not make your food less safe - it makes
it safer. Believing something to be so does not in fact make it so.
Making food safety as Barbara and I live it a part of the culture of
the future of food will make our food safer now and in the future. Without
food safety, local, sustainable, organic, non-GMO agriculture will remain
a niche and that is no future at all.
Under Fire for Food Safety Violations
By News Desk (10, May 10, 2011)
Chef-turned-reality TV star
Jamie Oliver is taking some heat from health inspectors in the United
Kingdom after several of his customers and staff fell ill with food
Inspectors cited some of Oliver's chain Italian restaurants for serving
undercooked burgers and expired meat, as well the use of dirty equipment,
according to The Daily Mail.
Health officials cited Jamie's Italian in Guildford, Surrey, for its
policy on preparing meat that potentially 'exposed customers' to E.coli.
"Your current cooking practice may not be adequate to effectively
destroy harmful bacteria that may be found within the raw mince meat,"
read the report, according to the paper. Inspectors reportedly threatened
managers with legal action unless they stopped serving undercooked burgers.
Oliver has become famous in the U.S. for his reality TV show on ABC,
"Food Revolution," which focuses on reforming unhealthy school
lunches and teaching Americans how to cook as a means of combating obesity.
The show is in its last season -- currently featuring Los Angeles --
due to poor ratings.
Food safety guru Doug Powell of Kansas State University responded to
the news Monday by suggesting Oliver improve his food safety practices.
"Jamie Oliver ... may be trying to rid Los Angeles of chocolate
milk, but health inspectors want him to pay more attention to crap in
his U.K. restaurants," wrote Powell.
"Thermometers would be a useful kitchen addition. Oliver doesn't
talk about thermometers on TV," he added.
migration from food packaging poses no health risk - FSANZ
By Rory Harrington (06, May, 2011)
Dietary exposure to a range
of chemicals that can migrate from packaging into food is low and poses
no risk to human health, according to research from government food
safety experts in Australasia.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) commissioned a series of
tests to assess the levels at which chemicals such as phthalates, perfluorinated
compounds (PCFs), epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO), semicarbazide, acrylonitrile
and vinyl chloride migrate from packaging into foodstuffs.
The body said it had selected these substances as they had previously
been highlighted as potential causes for concern and the work built
on its 2010 report on bisphenol A (BPA) levels in food, said FSANZ.
The survey focussed on a total of 183 samples across 65 food and beverages
packaged in cans, plastic, paper and glass. Not all samples were analysed
for all chemicals as this was based on the potential for different packaging
types to contain the substances.
For most food types, leading brands by market size as specified by a
recognised marketing guide were selected. If these were not available,
the brand taking up the most shelf space was used.
Wherever possible store 'own brands' were sampled and the smallest package
sized was selected on the assumption that it would "provide the
greatest potential for the food to come into contact with food contact
material - providing a worst-case scenario", said the report.
For most chemicals analysed, samples were composited from three primary
purchases of different brands of the same food type. The exception to
this was infant foods, where each brand of the different types of infant
food was analysed individually for each chemical.
Following the analyses, the FSANZ team declared: "There were no
detections of phthalates, PCFs, semicarbazide, acrylonitrile and vinyl
chloride in any of the foods analysed in this survey."
However, ESBO, produced by epoxidation of soybean oil and used in a
range of plastics most often as a plasticiser, was the only one of the
potential chemicals of concern detected in the exercise.
It is also commonly used in PVC sealing closures (gaskets) of glass
jars to form an airtight seal to prevent microbiological contamination
of foods . PVC, in the form of films and gaskets, can contain up to
30 per cent of the substance.
The chemical was found in three foods packaged in glass jars at concentrations
ranging from 4.2 to 10 mg/kg. The highest levels were discovered in
olive brine, followed by savoury pasta sauce and infant dinners.
No health risk
The tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ESBO as set by the European Food
Safety Authority is 1 mg/kg body weight. The European Union specific
migration limit (SML) for has been set at 60 mg per kg food for general
foods and 30 mg per kg infant foods.
The research concluded that dietary exposure to ESBO from these foods
was "estimated to be very low and does not pose a human health
and safety risk to consumers".
The study's overall conclusion for the raft of substances tested: "This
survey of chemicals associated with potential migration from food contact
packaging materials provides reassurance that concentrations of these
substances in foods are generally very low or not detected and do not
pose a health or safety risk to Australian consumers. This supports
previous assessments undertaken by FSANZ."
Over Food-Borne Illness Listeria
By KPSP Local 2 News (04, May, 2011)
Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention has a warning about the cold cut deli meat you may have
in your fridge. There's concern over a food-borne illness called "Listeria,"
which is not new, but the CDC says people are not paying attention.
The CDC says pregnant women and people older than 50 should avoid eating
cold cuts, hot dogs, and other deli meats...unless they re-heat them
to 165 degrees. That's because they are more susceptible to getting
infected with the bacteria.
"Listeria is funny in that most foods you put in your fridge, the
bacteria is held at bay, so you can keep food in the fridge for some
time, but listeria doesn't get held back by cold temperatures,"
Palm Springs Dr. Edmound Ayoub said. He says compared to salmonella
and e-coli...a listeria outbreak is rare. But it's very dangerous, particularly
in pregnant women. "Theres a much higher incidence of miscarriages
in women who have listeria, " he said.
Some of the symptoms of a listeria infection include: abdominal pain,
abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. And in some cases,
it can be deadly. However, despite the risk, some people tell KPSP Local
2, they won't change their eating habits. "I wont change mine because
I'm already eating little meat. And when i do use meat, its usually
turkey, and I do definitely heat it," Judi Hollis said.
To put it in perspective...roughly 16-hundred people are infected with
"listeriosis" each year, 260 die.
Tests confirm norovirus as cause of illness outbreak
at Mitchell school
By Ross Dolan (06, May, 2011)
State Epidemiologist Lon
Kightlinger confirmed Friday that it was a norovirus that sickened about
130 children at Gertie Belle Rogers Elementary School and closed the
school Thursday and Friday.
Kightlinger said the first round of fecal samples the state Department
of Health received from Mitchell physicians tested negative for the
virus, but a second round of samples received Friday by the lab tested
"We're pleased we've been able to better define what's been going
on there," he said.
He said the positive or negative status of a sample depends on when
it is collected. His department collects numerous samples in order to
be able to differentiate between noroviruses and more serious illnesses.
He said the state will continue to test for additional viruses, bacteria
or parasites that cause similar illnesses, but none has surfaced thus
far. The sudden, violent onset of illness symptoms, he said, are typical
of a norvirus.
"There's a sudden onset of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea - not
too severe, but troubling," he said.
According to the Centers for Disease Control, noroviruses spread from
person to person, through contaminated food or water, and by touching
contaminated surfaces. Norovirus is recognized as the leading cause
of foodborne-disease outbreaks in the United States. Outbreaks can happen
to people of all ages and in a variety of settings.
Kightlinger said norovirus-caused illnesses are commonplace in South
Dakota and occur frequently in nursing homes, schools and other institutions
with a closed environment.
Costco and Bravo Farms E. coli O157:H7 Raw Milk Cheese
Outbreak Still Unresolved
By Bill Marler (10, May, 2011)
On November 4, 2010, the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an alert to
consumers and health professionals about an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7
in five states: Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Nevada.
The alert was based on epidemiological evidence linking at least 25
E. coli O157:H7 illnesses in those states to a cheese product called
"Bravo Farms Dutch Style Gouda Cheese" that the defendant
manufactured and distributed to Costco Warehouses. Costco offered the
cheese product for sampling and sale at the "cheese road show"
held at certain Costco Warehouses, including the location at Christown
Spectrum Mall in Phoenix, Arizona, from October 5 to November 1, 2010.
Further investigation by the CDC and various state and local health
agencies demonstrated that 38 E. coli O157:H7 cases from Arizona, California,
Colorado, New Mexico and Nevada in the outbreak shared an indistinguishable
DNA fingerprint pattern. The fingerprint pattern has never been seen
before in the PulseNet database, which is the national subtyping network
made up of state and local public health laboratories and federal food
In a remarkable move, U.S. marshals and Food and Drug Administration
agents raided Bravo Farms and seized the gouda, along with piles of
edam and blocks of white cheddar on January 27, 2011. Investigators
seized more than 80,000 pounds of cheese with the intent of disposing
of it as garbage. This development is remarkable because the FDA so
rarely feels compelled to actually visit a food manufacturing facility
and impound potentially contaminated food items. Typically, the manufacturer
has long since disposed of the implicated food at the FDA's request.
It takes a rare combination of egregious manufacturing conditions and
a lack of cooperation to induce such FDA action. With Bravo Farms, federal
1. Plant buildings and structures are not of suitable size, construction,
and design to facilitate maintenance and sanitary operations for food-manufacturing
purposes. Employees must travel from the in-process area directly through
the finished product areas without sufficient controls to prevent cross-contamination,
and uncovered in-process materials are transported outside of the building,
exposed to the open environment.
2. Adequate measures under the conditions of manufacturing and handling
are not being taken to destroy or prevent the growth of undesirable
microorganisms particularly those of public health significance, to
prevent the food from being adulterated within the meaning of the Act.
The firm lacks the controls necessary to assure that cheese manufactured
from raw (unpasteurized) milk is aged for the minimum requirement of
3. Equipment containers and utensils used to convey, hold, or store
raw materials, work-in-progress, rework, or food, are not handled and
maintained during manufacturing or storage in a manner that protects
against contamination. The firm utilizes the same equipment for young
(unaged) cheese and aged cheese, without assuring proper cleaning and
sanitization to prevent cross contamination.
4. Effective measures are not being taken to exclude pests from the
processing areas and to protect against the contamination of food on
the premises by pests. At least fifty (50) flies were observed in the
processing areas of the firm, a rabbit was seen leaving the room in
which packaging material for finished is stored, and gaps were observed
around doors leading into the processing area.
5. The facility is not constructed in such a manner that drip or condensate
does not contaminate food, food-contact surfaces, or food-packaging
materials. Condensate was observed directly over an uncovered vat of
6. Employees are not washing hands thoroughly and sanitizing if necessary
to protect against contamination with undesirable microorganisms in
an adequate hand-washing facility before starting work, after each absence
from the work station, and at any other time when the hands may have
become soiled or contaminated. An employee was observed dipping his
hands in the utensil sanitizing bath and the proceeding to mix in-process
cheese with his bare hands, and an employee scratched his chin under
his beard cover and then mixed the milled cheese with his bare hands
without washing or sanitizing his hands.
Additionally, 15 of 24 cheese samples collected tested positive for
Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic organism that can cause serious
and sometimes fatal infections in children and the elderly. The samples
came from four different types of Bravo Farms cheese, including cheddar,
edam, gouda, and jack. And one sample, a cheddar cheese, tested positive
for E. coli O157:H7. As a result of the multiple positive samples for
pathogenic bacteria representing approximately four (4) months of production,
on November 22, 2010, the California Department of Food and Agriculture
imposed a quarantine on all types, varieties and flavors of cheese manufactured,
handled, or packaged by Bravo Farms, LLC and ordered a recall of all
cheese distributed by Bravo Farms, LLC.
Consumers warned to avoid eating oysters from area
1642 in Apalachicola Bay,
By Bill Marler (10, May, 2011)
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration
is advising consumers, restaurant operators, commercial shippers and
processors of shellfish not to eat, serve, purchase, sell or ship oysters
from Area 1642 in Apalachicola Bay, Fla. because the oysters may be
contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75.
Nine persons have been reported with illness. For eight, the illness
was confirmed as caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O75; laboratory
confirmation is pending in the other person. No one was hospitalized
or died. All ill persons reported consumption of raw or lightly steamed
Traceback indicates that oysters harvested from Area 1642 in Apalachicola
Bay, Fla., between March 21 and April 6, 2011, are associated with illness.
These oysters or oyster product were initially distributed in Florida,
Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and North Carolina. However, subsequent
distribution to other states may have occurred.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is advising consumers, restaurant
operators, commercial shippers and processors of shellfish not to eat,
serve, purchase, sell or ship oysters harvested from Area 1642 in Apalachicola
Bay, Florida because the oysters may be contaminated with toxigenic
Vibrio cholerae O75. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services Division of Aquaculture closed Area 1642 on April 29 and has
asked commercial oyster harvesters and dealers who obtained oysters
from this area to recall them.
International Conference for
Food Safety and Quality
Holiday Inn Chicago O'Hare Hotel
5615 North Cumberland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60631
November 8, 2011
Conference Place: Holiday Inn (Conference Room)
7:00 - 8:30 Registration and Breakfast (Juice, Tea, Coffee) and Poster
(***Exhibitors displaying time : 7:00-9:00 AM***)
- 9:00 Opening Announcement
Section A. Importance of Detection Methods for Food Safety and Quality
9:00 - 9:50 - The Importance of detection methods for food safety and
University of Georgia
9:50 - 10:40 - Advanced Detection methods for food safety and quality
University of Geulph
Editor of AEM
10:40 - 11:00 - Coffee Break in Exhibitors' Section
11:00 - 11:50 - Current Foodborne Outbreak and legal issues
William D. Marler, Esq.
MarlerClark attorneys at Law
11:50 - 12:00: Exhibitos Presentation and GROUP PICTURE
12:00 - 1:00: Lunch buffet will be supported (Holiday Inn, Dinning
B. Detection methods for Food Allergen Residues
1:50 - Detection of Food Allergen Residues in Processed Foods and Food
University of Nebraska
Director - Food Allergy Research and Resource Program
1:50 - 2:20 - Rapid Testing for Allergen Control Programs
Presentation by Ryan Waters
- 2:30 - Break / Visit Companies' Booth
C. Molecular/Immunoassay methods for Detection of Microbiological and
3:10 - Costco
Way for Food Safety and Quality
Food Safety Quality Manager
3:10 - 3:50 - Novel
biosensor technologies for high throughput screening of pathogens and
Professor, Purdue University
3:50 - 4:10- Innovative detection methods with immunoassay based method
4:10 -4:30 - Novel nucleic acid testing methods for industrial applications
by Roka Bioscience
4:30 - 5:30 - Panel Discussion (All key speakers will be joined)
2008 IAFP President, bioMerieux
5:30 - Adjourn
November 9, 2011
Conference Place: Holiday Inn (Conference Room)
7:00 - 8:30 Registration and Breakfast (Juice, Tea, Coffee) and Poster
8:40 - 9:00 Poster Competition Award
D. Importance of conventional/biochemical detection methods for Food safety
9:00 - 9:40 - Rapid Methods/Automation and a Look into the Future
Daniel Y.C. Fung
Director of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology Workshop (KSU)
Professor, Kansas State University
9:40 - 10:20 - Rapid
Methods and Automation Workshop for 30 years
Director of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology Workshop (UW)
Professor, University of Wisconsin
10:20 - 10:40 - Coffee
Break in Exhibitors' Section
- 10:50 - Presentation Title from Company presentation
- 11:30 - New demands for Rapid and Automative Detection Methods
for Food Safety
2008 IAFP President, bioMerieux
- 12:00 - Rapid methods for monitoring microbial numbers for
Senior Principal Scientist
-12:20 - Innovative methods for detection of microbiological/chemical
hazards for food safety
12:20 - 1:30 -
Lunch buffet will be supported (Holiday Inn, Dinning Room)
Impacts of Advanced/Conventional Detection methods on Food Industries
2:10 - Impact
of detection methods for food industries
2006 AOAC President
- 2:30 -
Coffee Break in Exhibitors' Section
2:30 - 3:10 - The
importance of detection procedures for food safety by 3rd party
4:00 Application of Rapid Methods for Food Industries
IAFP President (2004)
President, AIV Consulting LLC.
4:00 - 4:30 -
Attendees' Certificate / Adjourn
ist of Newsletters
To subscribe this Food Safety Newsletter
(C). All rights reserved FoodHACCP.com.