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6/30, 2003
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UPDATE ON NOROVIRUSES
Summer 2003
Safefood News Volume VII, No. 4
Source: http://www.colostate.edu/
Norwalk-like viruses, also known as noroviruses, are common causes of viral enteritis, accounting for over 66% of the estimated cases of foodborne illnesses in the United States each year. Gastroenteritis outbreaks in the U.S. between the years 1996-2000 have been caused by noroviruses in 39% of restaurant and catered events outbreaks, 30% of outbreaks in nursing homes,
12% of those in schools and day care centers, 10% of vacation outbreaks, and 9% miscellaneous outbreaks. Its implication among cruise ship outbreaks has
brought this more obscure pathogen into the limelight in recent months.
Symptoms
Noroviruses are called such because there is not just one, but rather a series of four, small RNA-viruses that are implicated in the transmission of disease. They are environmentally stable and will survive water chlorination and a wide temperature range, from freezing and heating to 140¡Æ F (60¡ÆC). Onset of illness occurs within 12-48 hours and lasts approximately 12-60 hours. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.
Transmission-Foodborne
Food contamination by infectious food handlers is the most common cause of norovirus-related gastroenteritis outbreaks. Transmission usually occurs from exposure to fecally contaminated food or water resulting from failure to wash hands properly after using the restroom. Shellfish, in particular oysters and clams, have been implicated due to the ability of noroviruses to
concentrate in their tissues or to contaminate waters where the shellfish are harvested. Of particular concern is transmission through ready-to-eat foods, which do not require cooking, such as salads and deli sandwiches.
Because only a very low exposure is needed to result in a substantial outbreak, attention must be given to preventive actions. These include emphasis on frequent handwashing, exclusion of ill foodworkers from the workplace, properly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and limiting possible contamination of ready-to-eat foods by either customers or foodhandlers.
Transmission-Person-to-Person
Person-to-person spread of noroviruses occurs by direct fecal-oral and airborne transmission. This has been a factor in institutional settings such as nursing homes, day care centers and on cruise ships. Wearing masks
can be effective in protecting individuals, such as hospital or nursing home staff, who clean areas contaminated by feces or vomitus. For hospital and
nursing home staff, protective measures include properly disinfecting surfaces of known contamination, taking special care in laundering soiled linens, and wearing of masks by staff that clean areas contaminated with
feces or vomitus.
Transmission-Water
Although infrequent, gastroenteritis outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated municipal water, well water, stream water, commercial ice, lake water and swimming pool water. In such instances, high level
chlorination might be required for adequate disinfection.
Bottom Line Although it is impossible to completely eliminate possible exposure to noroviruses in our environment, we can minimize our risk by taking the
following actions:
Wash your hands frequently, especially after using the toilet and changing diapers.
Drink only potable water.
Avoid consuming raw shellfish, especially from contaminated waters.
Carefully wash fresh fruits and vegetables before consuming.
Be cautious about exposure to persons who have the ©øflu.©÷
If you or your family comes down with a norovirus infection or the ©øflu©÷:
Flush or discard any vomitus and/or stool in the toilet and make sure that the surrounding area is kept clean.
Thoroughly clean and disinfect contaminated surfaces immediately after an episode of illness by using a bleach-based household cleaner.Immediately remove and wash clothing or linens that may be contaminated with noroviruses using hot water and soap.
Sources: 1) ©øNorwalk-Like Viruses©÷ Public Health Consequences and Outbreak Management. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC/MMWR). Recommendations and Reports. June 1, 2001/Vol. 50/No. RR-9.
2) Epidemiology of Noroviruses by Craig Hedberg; Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota.
Rocky Mountain Food Safety Conference. Boulder, CO. May 13, 2003.
3) Norovirus Q & A. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Last
reviewed January 21, 2003. available at
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/norovirus-qa.htm

S.T.O.P. FOOD SAFETY CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: FIRST-OF-ITS-KIND CONFERENCE
TO FOCUS ON FOOD SAFETY & PUBLIC HEALTH ADVOCACY

July 25-27, 2003
Safe Tables Our Priority
Source: www.SafeTables.org
Madison, WI - A first-of-its-kind community advocacy forum in Madison on July 25-27th, 2003 will offer victims of foodborne disease, individuals, students, teachers and health care professionals new insight into improving
local and national foodborne disease policies. The national conference, hosted by Safe Tables Our Priority (S.T.O.P.), a national foodborne illness organization founded by victims-turned-advocates, aims to provide
participants with a broad understanding of the political and health policy gaps that perpetuate foodborne disease -- and the initiative and tools to create needed change.
As a victim of foodborne disease myself, I have been horrified and disillusioned by the apathy and red tape I have encountered while trying to stop the senseless tragedies that are befalling Americas families. Thats
why there is an overwhelming need for a conference like this,?states conference co-organizer Barbara Kowalcyk, a S.T.O.P. Board member from Mt. Horeb, WI.
My son Kevin was only 21Z? when he died an excruciating death from E. coli O157:H7 two years ago. No other family ever should have to go though that -
and its up to individuals and communities to take action and stop permitting contaminated food to kill 5,000+ people each year.S.T.O.Ps Victims Advocates Conference on Stopping Foodborne Disease
takes place in conjunction with the tenth anniversary of S.T.O.P., the national advocacy and victims?assistance group founded by victims of the 1993 fast-food hamburger outbreak on the West Coast that sickened 700 and
killed 4. Saturday and Sunday sessions will be open to everyone, and are designed to provide an overview of food safety history, policies, emerging trends, and how to transform concern into meaningful reform. Meanwhile,
special pre-conference sessions on Friday are geared especially for victims, to help children, teens and adults who are coping with grief, anger, and/or the physical, emotional and financial outcomes of serious foodborne disease. We anticipate that this conference will help our country reach the point where people no longer accept the burden of detoxifying contaminated meat and vegetables in their own kitchens,?said S.T.O.P. President Nancy Donley. Food sold to consumers should be as safe as modern technology and common sense can make it, yet too often it is not. If we can get thousands of American families to stand up and demand cleaner food, it will happen.?br>More information on the conference is available on S.T.O.P.s website, www.SafeTables.org, or by calling 1-800-350-STOP.

JUDGE DISMISSES OZAUKEE E. COLI SUIT: FAIR FOUND IMMUNE FROM LIABILITY;
ANOTHER DISMISSAL IS POSSIBLE

June 24, 2003
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Dan Benson
Source: http://www.jsonline.com/news/ozwash/jun03/150514.asp
Ozaukee County Circuit Judge Paul Malloy was cited as dismissing Thiensville
resident Marilyn Strandt's lawsuit earlier this month, agreeing with the county's argument that the fair was immune from any liability under state's recreational use immunity statute. The story says that Strandt, 70, filed suit in August after the county rejected her claim seeking $50,000., alleging she was infected with the potentially fatal E. coli strain, O157:H7, "due to improper, negligent and unsafe sanitary conditions in and about the fair and its facilities" at the 2001 fair. The story notes that the 2001 epidemic eventually produced 25 confirmed
infections of the E. coli strain and at least 200 instances of people reporting symptoms. An investigation ruled out many of the common causes of E. coli, including
tainted food or water. It was eventually determined that the outbreak was caused by poor hygiene. Those infected had not adequately washed their hands after touching animals in the petting zoo. The epidemic prompted the county to spend $175,000 on improvements to the
Cedarburg fairgrounds, including the installation of water and sewer lines connected to the city's lines and the relocation of food-handling areas farther from livestock facilities. Because water and food were never linked to the epidemic, officials said none of the improvements was directly related to it; they were intended partly to reassure fairgoers. Agricultural Society attorney James S. Smith of Brookfield was cited as saying the county agreed to pay about $1,124 in court costs in exchange for
Strandt's assurance that she would not appeal Malloy's decision.

Current Food Safety News

06/27. FSIS RAISED FEES FOR VOLUNTARY INSPECTION, AMS PROPOSED FEE
06/27. UN commission to set new safety, trade standards on food sec
06/27. DIOXINS IN IRISH FOOD STUDY SHOWS LOW CONTAMINATION
06/27. PROGRESS ON FOOD LABELLING: IRISH AGRICULTURE MINISTER LAYS
06/27. JOINT FAO/WHO EXPERT COMMITTEE ON FOOD ADDITIVES, SIXTY-FIRS
06/27. EU COMMISSION UPDATES CODEX DOCUMENTS
06/27. Margarine passes the PAH test
06/27. S.T.O.P. FOOD SAFETY CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: FIRST-OF-ITS-K
06/27. NEW FOOD SCIENCE RESEARCH CENTER TO OPEN

06/26. AMERICANS NEED A HELPING OF FOOD SAFETY WHEN DINING OUTDOORS
06/26. HELPING SAFE FOOD TRADE: EUROPEAN COMMISSION ISSUES MANUAL T
06/26. CDC REPORTS ON HEPATITIS A
06/26. NHS struggles to cope with surge in allergy cases
06/26. Island waters closed to shellfish harvesting due to harmful
06/26. Dallas Restaurant Report Card
06/26. JUDGE DISMISSES OZAUKEE E. COLI SUIT: FAIR FOUND IMMUNE FROM
06/26. Safer peanuts are on the menu
06/26. NEW COUNTERFEIT VODKA WARNING
06/26. Allergy reaction to food and surroundings affects 1 in 3
06/26. BSE RISK IN OX TONGUE VERY SMALL
06/26. CONSUMER SAFETY OFFICERS ISSUING MORE NOIES
06/26. BARE HANDS OR GLOVES?
06/26. BEATING SALMONELLA: IMPACT OF SALMONELLA IN THE NETHERLANDS

06/25. TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY
06/25. UPDATE ON NOROVIRUSES
06/25. Harkin calls for federal report on mad cow prevention
06/25. Expert panel says Canada should ban all cattle parts in anim
06/25. QMS urges caution over scrapping of anti-BSE measures
06/25. McDonald's antibiotics ban worries some farmers
06/25. Summertime foods: Eat, drink and stay healthy
06/25. E. coli prevention takes prominence at fairgrounds sheep sho
06/25. Food worker rules aimed at safety
06/25. The Perils of Picnics
06/25. How to keep your food safe when the power goes out
06/25. Officials seek to preserve state's rules on food safety
06/25. Canada Expects Expert Panel to Say Beef Safe

06/24. INTERNATIONAL FOOD SAFETY ISSUES
06/24. INTERNATIONAL FOOD SAFETY ISSUES
06/24. BIG BIRD IMPORT RULES: FSIS ISSUES ITS FINAL RULE ON IMPORT
06/24. $6,000 IN FINES LEVIED UNDER PROVINCIAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT
06/24. FDA MAKES CHANGES IN FOOD-SAFETY CENTER STRUCTURE
06/24. FOOD-BORNE-ILLNESS LAWSUITS FEED DRIVE TOWARD IRRADIATION: R
06/24. WHAT ARE SAFE GRILLING PRATICES?
06/24. WHAT PRACTICES WILL KEEP FOOD SAFE WHILE CAMPING?
06/24. HEALTH INSPECTORS CHARGE 23 RESTAURANTS IN 2002
06/24. CANADA EXPECTS PANEL TO SAY BEEF SUPPLY SAFE
06/24. Scientist Suggests BSE-Copper Link

06/23. AMSA'S 56TH RECIPROCAL MEAT CONFERENCE
06/23. JAPAN'S JULY 1 DEADLINE
06/23. SCIENTISTS HURT THEMSELVES BY ABUSING CONCEPT OF 'SAFE'
06/23. CHIQUITA PROMOTES JEFFREY C. ACKER TO VICE PRESIDENT OF GLOB
06/23. TYPHOID FEVER: HAITI
06/23. FROM THE FARM GATE TO THE DINNER PLATE
06/23. AGENCY RESPONDS TO RADIOACTIVITY IN FARMED SALMON SURVEY
06/23. SAFETY OF FOOD PRODUCTS
06/23. FSA NORTHERN IRELAND REVIEWS LOCAL AUTHORITY AUDIT
06/23. PROSECUTION BULLETIN: CHEESE SHIPMENTS LEAD TO $5,500 FINE F
06/23. FINES FOR BUTCHER WHO SOLD HORSE MEAT AS BEEF CUT IN HALF
06/23. FAST FOOD, NOT FAST ANTIBIOTICS
06/23. FACT SHEET: FOOD SAFETY TIPS FOR PICNICKING, HIKING & CAMPIN
06/23. FACT SHEET: FOOD SAFETY TIPS ON E. COLI O157:H7
06/23. FACT SHEET: FOOD SAFETY TIPS FOR BARBECUING

06/22. E. COLI PREVENTION TAKES PROMINENCE AT FAIRGROUNDS SHEEP SHO
06/22. DRUGS ARE IN WATERWAYS IN PARTS PER TRILLION
06/22. NEW CHIEF EXECUTIVE FOR FOOD SCIENCE AUSTRALIA
06/22. ALTA. FOOD BANKS TELL GOVERNMENT NOT TO DESTROY BEEF
06/22. HORMONES IN BEEF PRODUCTION: A PERSPECTIVE ON INTERNATIONAL

06/21. PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGY DATABASE LAUNCHED
06/21. AGRICULTURE MINISTRY TO FOCUS ON FOOD SAFETY
06/21. CRACKDOWN ON WATER IN CHICKEN SCAM
06/21. AGRICULTURE MINISTRY TO FOCUS ON FOOD SAFETY

06/20. Demand Led McDonald's to Cut Antibiotics
06/20. McDonald's Antibiotics Policy Encounters Some Resistance
06/20. TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY AGENTS
06/20. CANNED TUNA IS RISKY FOR MOMS-TO-BE, STUDY FINDS
06/20. RESEARCHERS GATHER: FOOD SAFETY IS A MAJOR TOPIC OF THE ANNU
06/20. IMPLEMENTATION OF E.COLI TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS IN SCOTL

Foodborne Outbreak
06/27. E-coli outbreaks kill 2 children near Seoul
06/27. Cases of E-coli Climbing
06/27. Boy dies of suspected E. coli disease
06/26. Bad food poisons Vietnamese workers
06/26. Leftovers sicken scores of campers
06/25. SALMONELLOSIS, FOODBORNE - UK (ENGLAND), USA (NEW MEXICO)
06/25. Ten tribals die of food poisoning
06/24. DANCE HALL WATER BLAMED FOR SICKNESS: WELL CONTAINED E. COLI
06/23. FOODBORNE TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS A --- MASSACHUSETTS, 2001
06/17. More than 100 shigellosis cases reported in McLennan County
06/17. Hospital cafeteria reopens after salmonella outbreak

BARE HANDS OR GLOVES?
Summer 2003
Safefood News Volume VII, No. 4
Source: http://www.colostate.edu/
The debate continues as to whether food is more safely prepared by workers using bare hands or those wearing gloves. Published data on the effectiveness of handwashing and glove use in a foodservice setting are limited. Most data on glove effectiveness have originated from the healthcare literature, which have evaluated surgical gloves using a method which doesn©öt simulate gloves in use, especially foodservice. Let©ös take a look at both sides of the issue.
Handwashing vs. Gloves Many believe that proper handwashing is sufficient. They say that mandatory glove use can lead to a false sense of security due to the fact that gloves are commonly misused. However, as glove proponents point out, because
handwashing is often neglected, an additional glove barrier is needed. So-called ©ørestroom germs,©÷ including Hepatitis A, noroviruses, Giardia, and Shigella can be carried to food by hands that are not properly washed after using the restroom. Therefore, any measures to minimize hand contact with food stand to reduce the chances of contracting a foodborne illnesss. This stance is reflected in the 1999 FDA food code, which states that employees
may not contact ready-to-eat foods with bare hands, except when washing fruits and vegetables and when otherwise approved. From a customer standpoint, seeing employees wear gloves is a reassuring sign that the food is safe. Problems with Gloves
Although estimates range widely as to how often gloves fail, the possibility exists that large numbers of bacteria could pass from hands to the outside of gloves. However, one document presented to the FDA showed that even gloves that leaked prevented hand contamination 77% of the time when tested. Results of a study conducted by the Food Risk Analysis Institute at Rutgers
University indicate that gloves may reduce both bacterial transfer from food to hands of foodservice workers and subsequent transfer from hands back to food. However, their findings also showed that the majority of gloves are permeable to bacteria during use; therefore, glove size and type are factors that must be considered when designing a disposable glove program. Employees need proper training and constant reinforcement regarding guidelines on glove usage, and handwashing should always occur before using
gloves. Bottom Line Taking extra precautions to prevent foodborne illness makes sense. The combination of handwashing and glove use appears to be more effective than either alone. Both sides agree that proper training is the key. A hand sanitation program that combines proper handwashing and disposable glove use
along with other barriers can provide one more layer of protection to
keeping our food safer.
Sources:
1) Gloves! The Controversy Continues by Megan Bradley. Food Safety Solutions. Summer 2002.
2) Glove Barriers to Bacterial Cross-Contamination between Hands to Food. R. Montville, Y. Chen, D. Schaffner. Journal of Food Protection. Vol 64,No. 6, 2001, pgs 845-849.

Current USDA/FDA News
Speeches Page: Updated June 25, 2003
OPPD (Policy) What's New Page: Updated June 25, 2003
For an Enjoyable Fourth, Consumers Should Practice Food Safety
USDA Says"Fight BAC" When Grilling Irradiated Burgers [Video News Release]

Compliance With Recordkeeping and Registration Requirements Under the Federal Meat and
Current Good Manufacturing Practice for the Production of Infant Formula
Food Safety and Security Research--Rapid Methods Development

Current Food Recall
06/27. Undeclared wheat in certain TOKYO EXPRESS SUSHI products
06/27. Certain DICKINSON¡¯S brand honey may contain chloramphenical
06/26. FIRMIN BOUVARD P¡¯TIT CHEVALIER LAIT may contain hazelnut
06/26. Blue and White Food Products Corp. Recalls Sabra Smoked Whitefish Salad
06/25. Voluntary Recall of Viga or Viga for Women Tablets
06/24. Certain DICKINSON¡¯S brand honey may contain chloramphenical
06/23. FIRMIN BOUVARD P¡¯TIT CHEVALIER LAIT may contain hazelnut
06/22. I.Q.F. RAW SHELL-ON JUMBO FRESHWATER PRAWN may contain Nitrofurans
06/21. FSANZ RECALL - E.COLI (GENERIC) IN FETA CHEESE [Au-NZ]
06/20. African Market Issues an Alert on Uneviscerated Fish (Brochette)

PATHIGEN(R) SALMONELLA TEST ADOPTED BY AVIAGEN FOR SURVEILLANCE OF POULTRY BREEDING STOCK WORLD'S LARGEST BROILER BREEDING COMPANY TO UTILIZE IGEN
SYSTEMS AT ITS NORTH AMERICAN SITES

June 19, 2003
From a press release
GAITHERSBURG, Md. -- IGEN International, Inc. (Nasdaq: IGEN) announced today that Aviagen, Inc., the world's largest broiler breeding company, has adopted the Company's PATHIGEN Salmonella test method for use in surveillance of their poultry breeding stock. The PATHIGEN test method utilizes IGEN's proprietary ORIGEN(R) technology for presumptive identification of Salmonella and is the only rapid method approved for use
by the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP). viagen, has purchased several IGEN instruments and will deploy them at each of its North American sites. "The selection of our ORIGEN systems by the leader of the large international poultry breeding industry, we believe, underscores the superior performance and value our PATHIGEN tests and instruments provide," said Samuel J. Wohlstadter, IGEN's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.
"Our rapid, highly sensitive detection products are ideally suited to meet the diverse needs of the food production industry. We are continually pursuing new opportunities to build our customer base in the food processing market, and are pleased to meet Aviagen's demand for high-quality tests and instrumentation."
Aviagen is the largest broiler breeding company in the world, supplying 47 percent of the market across more than 85 countries with Arbor Acres, Ross and LIR brands. As the leader in research and development, Aviagen delivers top quality poultry breeding stock backed by world-class technical and veterinary teams. Aviagen North America, headquartered in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for production, sales and service in the U.S. and Canada.
Dr. A. Gregorio Rosales, Vice President of Veterinary Services, Aviagen Inc. stated, "One of Aviagen's philosophies is to use the latest advances in technology to improve the quality of products and service. Thus we are enthusiastic about incorporating IGEN's PATHIGEN System for rapid detection of Salmonella in environmental samples. Furthermore, this novel system
enhances our ability to meet the testing requirements established by the NPIP." IGEN's PATHIGEN Salmonella test method was approved by NPIP in June 2002. With this approval, PATHIGEN tests may be used to detect Salmonella contamination in live poultry. NPIP support for approval of the PATHIGEN Salmonella test method was based upon results that showed equal or enhanced
sensitivity when compared to conventional non-rapid methods. The PATHIGEN method delivers results in approximately 48 hours offering the economic benefits of reduced testing time, labor and materials. Conventional, non-rapid methods involve incubation in petri dishes with results taking three to nine days. The NPIP is a Federal-State-Industry cooperative focused on controlling certain poultry diseases. Government participation is through the USDA and various state agriculture and veterinary agencies. Industry
members include the breeding portion of the poultry industry.
http://www.igen.com

WHAT ARE SAFE GRILLING PRATICES?
June 2003
Food Safety Network Factsheet
Source: http://www.eatwelleatsafe.
ca/factsheets/grilling.pdf
What are safe grilling practices?
Use of a food thermometer is important to ensure that grilled meat is thoroughly cooked. The colour of meat is not a reliable way to determine that the meat has reached a safe internal temperature. Ground beef burgers can prematurely turn brown at temperatures too low to kill any bacteria that may be present. Cooked from frozen, beef burgers can remain pink even after reaching the safe internal temperature of 71C. When using a probe type
thermometer, put the probe through the side of the burger into the center of the patty. Check all the burgers or pieces of meat. Safe internal temperatures are:
Ground beef and ground pork 71C
Ground chicken and ground turkey 80C
Pork chops or pork roasts 71C
Chicken or turkey pieces 77C
Whole chicken 82C
Beef steaks and beef roasts Medium 71C ; Well 77C
Hot dogs 74C
Keep raw foods separate from cooked foods. Use a clean plate and clean utensils for the cooked food. Wash the plate and utensils that touched the raw food in hot, soapy water and sanitize with a mild bleach solution of 5 mL (1 tsp.) bleach in 750 mL (3 cups) water.
Marinate meats in the refrigerator. Prepare extra marinade that has not touched the raw meat for basting during grilling. Discard marinade that has touched the raw meat. Frozen meats can be grilled on the barbecue but it may be difficult to ensure even cooking. Allow approximately 50 percent more cooking time. Use of a meat thermometer is essential. Is grilling a potential health hazard? Cooking meat at a high temperature results in the production of heterocyclic amines (HCAs). Research has linked HCAs with an increased risk of certain cancers. HCAs are formed when amino acids (building blocks for proteins) and
creatine (a chemical found naturally in muscles) in muscle meat react with each other at high temperatures. Another class of cancer causing agents that are produced at high cooking temperatures are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are formed when meat fat drips onto hot barbecue coals and creates a smoke that deposits PAHs onto the meat. There are four factors that affect HCA formation: type of food, cooking method, temperature and the cooking time. HCAs are found in cooked muscle meats such as red meats, poultry, and fish. High temperature cooking methods
such as broiling, pan-frying and grilling produce large amounts of HCAs. Low temperature cooking methods about 100C/212F, such as stewing, boiling or poaching create insignificant amounts of HCAs. Foods cooked for long periods of time at a high temperature such as charring while barbecuing increase the amount of HCAs. Foods cooked at lower temperatures generally produce lower levels of HCAs. How can HCA and PAH formation be decreased?
Due to potentially harmful effects, use the following tips to reduce the formation of HCAs and PAHs. Vary cooking methods to include barbecuing but dont limit them to barbecuing. Moderation and variety are important. Avoid charring or overcooking your meats when barbecuing. Remove any burnt portions before eating.
Use a thermometer to determine when the meat is cooked to help to avoid overcooking. Pre-cook meats by microwaving or boiling first, and then immediately placing on the barbecue for added flavour.
Marinating meat before barbecuing (making sure to get all surfaces) may reduce the amount of HCAs produced.Keep meat pieces small to minimize barbecuing time (i.e. kabobs). Choose lean cuts of meat instead of high-fat types Trim the fat to reduce the amount of fat that may drip into the flame. The smoke that results from the dripping fat deposits PAHs on the surface of the meat.
Reduce dripping. To avoid smoke flare-ups, do not let juices drip into the flames or coals. Use tongs instead of a fork to avoid piercing food which will allow juices to escape.
Information Sources:
Agricultural Research Service. (2001). Cooked-to-Brown Burgers May Not Tell
the Truth. Retrieved June 16, 2003, from
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2001/010202.htm
Canadian Food Inspection Agency. (2003). Food safety tips for barbecuing.
Retrieved June 16, 2003, from
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/corpaffr/foodfacts/barbece.shtml
Health Canada. (2003). Food safety: Tips on safe ground beef grilling.
Retrieved June 16, 2003, from
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/food-aliment/mh-dm/mhe-dme/groundbeef_boeufhache/e_ti
ps_ground_beef_grilling.html
Lyon, B.G., Berry, B.W., Soderberg, D. & Clinch, N. (2000). Visual color and doneness indicators and the incidence of premature brown color in beef patties cooked to four end point temperatures. Journal of Food Protection, 10, 1389-1398.
Sinha, R., Chow, W. H., Kulldorff, M., Denobile, J., Butler, J.,
Garcia-Closas, M., Weil, R., Hoover, R. N. & Rothman, N. (1999). Well-done, grilled red meat increases the risk of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Research, 59, 4320-4324.
Sinha, R. (2002). An epidemiologic approach to studying heterocyclic amines. Mtation Research, 506-507, 197-204.
For more information on grilling food safety or other food safety topics, please call the Food Safety Network toll-free at 1-866-50-FSNET or visit our website at www.foodsafetynetwork.ca
Although we strive to make the information on this fact sheet helpful and accurate, we make no representation or warranty, express or implied, regarding such information, and disclaim all liability of any kind whatsoever arising out of use of, or failure to use, such information or errors or omissions on this fact sheet.

DuPont releases Enterobacter sakazakii test
Source: http://www.ift.org/extra/newsletter/
On June 18, DuPont Qualicon announced an addition to its BAX(R) system line of diagnostic tests. The new test kit assays detects Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula, dry dairy and soy ingredients. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has identified Enterobacter sakazakii as an emerging foodborne pathogen that can cause sepsis, meningitis, or necrotizing enterocolitis in newborn infants, particularly premature infants or other infants with weakened immune systems. The FDA reports that over the last several years, investigations of several outbreaks of Enterobacter sakazakii infection occurring in neonatal intensive care units worldwide have shown the outbreak to be associated with milk-based powdered infant formulas. Since powdered formulas are not sterile products, they could contain opportunistic bacteria, such as Enterobacter sakazakii. DuPont Qualicon collaborated with the Nestl?Research Centers in Switzerland and the United States to develop the PCR-based assay for rapid detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in food and environmental samples. "We are very pleased to continue expansion of the BAX?system product line to include tests for emerging pathogens such as Enterobacter sakazakii," said Kevin Huttman, president of DuPont Qualicon. The BAX system is a screening method that provides DNA-based detection of target bacteria in raw ingredients, finished food products and environmental samples. Bunge to acquire India edible oil business

Biopreservative beats enterobacteria
Source: http://www.meatprocess.com/news/news.asp?id=481
27/06/03 - Fighting pathogenic flora, guarding organoleptic properties of meat, and reducing out-of specs batches remain a challenge for food manufacturers. Rhodia Food claims to have come up with the answer.
The company has launched a new range of cultures under the StarGARD brand, specifically targeted to improve food shelf life in controlling the growth of alteration and/or pathogenic flora, particularly enterobacteria and Listeria in meat products.
A key strength of the new biopreservative product, claims Rhodia, is the natural angle.
We provide a natural and efficient preservative solution to professionals," said Marie-Jos? Leroy, marketing innovation director of Food Protection at Rhodia Food. "By comparison, most preservatives used, like organic acids, must be highly concentrated to be efficient against enterobacteria, thus damaging the organoleptic qualities of meat products." StarGARD LM-20 and LM-30 - the first two products of a series of novel maturation starters intended for salamis and dried sausage applications - were developed to control the development of gramnegative bacteria under either a modified atmosphere or a vacuum packaging.